Genus of bears appeared 5-6 million years ago. Ursus minimus, a relatively small animal whose fossils are found in France, is currently considered to be its first representative.
Word "bear" pan-Slavic, means "eating honey." The bear is one of those lucky people that a person learns from the cradle. It seems that there is not a single beast about which so many stories have been composed.
Word "bear" appeared in ancient England, it means "bright brown"
What do bears eat?
Omnivore and endurance are the main qualities that help the beast survive in difficult conditions. In the diet of a brown bear, 75% is plant food. Clubfoot can feed on tubers, nuts, berries, grass stems, roots and acorns. If this is not enough, the bear can go to the crops of oats or corn, feed in cedar forests.
Cult of the bear existed among the Slavs and Germans, among the indigenous peoples of the northern Urals, Siberia and the Far East. Mansi, Kets and Nivkhs had a widespread view of the bear as an ancestor of people, and therefore the animal was especially revered.
How to determine the intentions of bears
The fastest way to determine the intentions of bears is to observe the hair on the nape. Of all the wild animals, bears are closest to humans in their psychology.
The brown bear is an unstable animal. In one place it eats, in another it sleeps, and for mating it can go away from its usual habitat for several kilometers. A young bear wanders around until he starts a family.
The brown master marks his possessions. Only he can hunt here. He marks the borders in a special way, tearing the bark from the trees. In areas without plantations, the bear can peel objects that are in its field of vision - stones, slopes.
Usually a bear is a beast confident in its strength. But sometimes it’s a coward. Suddenly, a hare will jump out from under his feet, and the bastard will throw himself away, goggling in fear, and bumping into the bushes.
We can recall examples when the bears showed shameful cowardice and even died from fear. But in a different setting, the same bears are bold and even insanely brave. In order to tag on the heels of a tiger and take prey from him, one must be very brave. A coward, no matter how strong he may be, will never fight with such a powerful and dexterous predator as the Ussuri tiger, and the bear is not always inferior to him.
What do cubs do in childhood
The life of a brown bear living in Russia begins in a den where newborn cubs (blind, toothless and almost hairless, weighing about 500 grams) drink their mother’s milk fat. At the age of four months, wild bears can already follow their mother into the forest in search of food. The mother bear, during this period, feeds them with milk and teaches the correct social behavior. Bears spend almost half their waking hours in games. Thus, they learn about the world around them and develop important skills necessary, for example, for hunting. The rest of the time they spend in search of food and sleep.
What a bear can do
A clumsy-looking, brown bear runs exceptionally fast - at speeds above 55 km / h, swims superbly (swims up to 6-7 km.) And climbs trees well in youth (it makes it reluctantly in old age). With one paw strike, a seasoned bear is able to break the back of a bull or bison.
He especially wins at marathon distances. He rushes after a wild boar, as he explodes, and the trace has caught a cold. And the clumsy know yourself is running, sniffing at the tracks. And even after twenty kilometers, but still catch up with the unfortunate. There you go!
How Bears Raise Cubs
For three years the cubs live next to their mother, who takes care of them. Older cubs help take care of the younger ones. Usually a bear gives birth once every two years. Older cubs (mostly sisters) often look after younger ones. Finally, the cubs are separated from the mother by 3-4 years of life. Bears reach puberty at 4-6 years, but continue to grow until 10-11 years. Life expectancy in nature is 20-30 years, in captivity - up to 47-50 years.
All kinds of bears are incredibly smart. These animals are very curious, always trying to explore new and unusual objects, have a very good memory. For example, many hunters and observers argue that bears toss stones and sticks into traps in order to neutralize them and get bait, often confuse the tracks, walking backwards in front and in circles. Brown bears remember everything in their neighborhood glades with berries, fruits and mushrooms, and they know when they ripen.
Restoring strength after a long sleep, brown bears are ready for mating. The race begins in the spring, in May, and lasts about a month. Females inform about their readiness for mating with a special secret, which has a strong smell. According to these marks, males find their chosen ones and protect them from rivals.
Sometimes for the female between two bears there are fierce battles in which fate is decided, and sometimes the life of one of them. In the event of the death of one of the males, the winner may even eat it. In the mating season, bears are very dangerous. They emit a wild roar and can attack a person.
Before hibernation, the bear must gain the necessary amount of fat reserve. If it turns out to be insufficient, the animal has to wander further in search of food. From this came the name - connecting rod. Moving in the cold season, the bear is doomed to die from the frost, hunger or guns of the hunter. However, in winter you can meet not only the connecting rod. Often a bear’s sleep can just be disturbed by humans. Then this plump beast is forced to seek a new refuge in order to again go into hibernation.
The bear chooses this winter refuge with particular care. Reliable quiet places located on the borders of marshes, in windbreaks, on the banks of rivers, in secluded caves are chosen for the lair. The shelter should be dry, warm, spacious and safe. The bear equips its lair with moss, laying soft bedding out of it. Tree branches shelter masked and insulated. Very often a good den den bear has been used for several years. The life of brown bears is to find food, especially before hibernation. Before falling into a dream, the beast diligently confuses the tracks: it goes through the swamps, winds and even steps backwards.
All winter, the bear sleeps on its side, conveniently curled up. Less commonly observed are poses on the back or sitting, with the head bowed. Breathing and heart rate slow down when hibernating. Surprisingly, during the winter sleep, this animal does not defecate. All waste products in the bear’s body are re-processed and converted into valuable proteins necessary for him to exist. The rectum is covered with a dense cork, consisting of needles, pressed grass and wool. It is removed after the animal leaves the den.
Many naively believe that during hibernation, the clubfoot extracts valuable vitamins from their limbs. But this is not so. The fact is that in January there is a renewal of the skin on the pads of the paws of a bear. The old dry skin bursts and gives him great discomfort. To somehow moderate this itch, the bear licks its paw, moisturizing and softening it with its saliva.
Why is the clubfoot bear
When walking, the bear steps simultaneously either on the right paws or on the left, so from the side it seems that it is being rolled from side to side. But this awkwardness is deceiving, in case of danger it is very easy to gallop and can easily catch up with a person. Since the bear has hind legs longer than the front, it rises uphill much faster than descends from it.
Bears are very interesting and original animals, you can study their habits and lifestyle for a long time, but with all this, amazing and unexplored facts about the life of these peculiar animals will remain.
- In total, there are 4 species and many subspecies of these animals, but they all have one common ancestor, who lived about 1-2 million years ago.
- The largest of the bears is white. It can reach 3 meters in length and weigh up to 800 kg, being the largest land predator on Earth.
- In fact, these animals do not gag, just when they walk slightly sway from side to side. This is where the nickname came from.
- Extinct about 12 thousand years ago, a giant bear about twice the size of its largest modern counterparts.
- The level of bear intelligence is evidenced by the fact that they sometimes throw sticks and stones into traps to neutralize them.
- These animals have a two-layer coat - the outer layer protects from water, and the inner one helps to keep warm.
- Malay bears have the longest claws, which grow up to 10 cm in length (facts about Malaysia).
- It is practically impossible to run away from this seemingly awkward beast - at short distances they can reach speeds of up to 55 km / h, which is much faster than the speed of a professional athlete-runner.
- Bears can climb trees, but adults usually do not do this, because the branches do not support their weight.
- Polar bears, unlike brown ones, do not hibernate.
- Cute pandas, favorites of the whole world, also relate to these animals. By the way, they also do not fall asleep for the winter.
- Polar bears eat only meat and fish, and their people living in less colder climates are willing to include plant foods in their diet.
- Some brown bears love to eat ants. They shove their tongue into the anthill, and then, waiting for the evil ants to stick around it, pull it back and swallow the prey.
- When walking, they do not rest on the fingers, such as cats or dogs, but on the entire foot, so they can walk on their hind legs, in an upright position.
- Polar bears have black skin, but because of the white fur, the only black dot on their bodies that can be seen is the nose.
- The same inhabitants of the polar latitudes swim superbly, easily overcoming a distance of several tens of kilometers. And it is in ice water!
- A brown bear is able to smell honey in a bee hive at a distance of 7-9 kilometers.
- These animals see the world around them in a color spectrum, like people (facts about vision).
- Tricks they do not take. To confuse hunters, they can specially go backward for some time.
- In one sitting, the polar bear can absorb up to 60-70 kg of meat.
- There are cases when polar bears ravaged food warehouses of various research expeditions.
- Bear hibernation lasts from 3 to 6 months on average, depending on the region of habitat.
- If you wake up a clubfoot, he becomes furious, destroying everything in his path, and usually begins with the careless poor fellow who dared to interrupt his sleep.
- A newborn teddy bear weighs only about a pound, but by the time it reaches maturity, it increases its weight by 800-1000 times. If these proportions were true for people, then we would weigh 5-6 tons.
- From the teeth of a bear, you can determine the age of the beast in exactly the same way as the age of a tree by rings.
- These animals live an average of 25-30 years. In captivity, sometimes survive to 50.
- About 70% of all bears in the world live in the USA and Canada.