Lupine is a plant from the legume family. It has another name derived from Latin - wolf (Lupinus). The genus includes about a hundred species, most of which grow in the Mediterranean-African and American regions. It was used in agriculture and medicine in antiquity.
The root is formed in the form of a rod, which goes to a depth of 1-2 meters. A structural feature is also small compaction tubers with colonies of bacteria - nitrogen fixers. They process nitrogen from the air and enrich the soil.
The stalks are grassy, can also become stiff. Most often erect, but creeping or branching shrubs and shrubs are sometimes found. The leaves are palmate-complex, double and triple. They are located on long even stalks of 5-6 pieces. They are similar in shape to palm branches.
Inflorescences are brushes about 0.5-1 m high, with a large number of buds arranged in dense rows of 50-80 pcs. Peduncles are strong and strong, withstand rains well and do not fly around in windy weather.
The most common color is blue. However, there are other options: one-color (cream, red, purple) and variegated.
The average flowering time is 20 days.
The seed has a smooth surface, it is similar to beans or peas. The color and shape depend on what kind of lupine they belong to.
The plant is poisonous: the content of hazardous substances in beans is the highest - 4%, in the roots less than about 1%. However, harmless varieties have been bred for agriculture, they feed livestock or rabbits.
The flower is considered a honey plant and attracts bees with a large amount of pollen, however, it does not produce nectar.
Types and varieties of lupins
The genus is represented by one or two year olds and widely used perennials. To date, both giants have grown up to 200 cm, and miniature representatives, whose stem does not exceed 20 cm.
The most common are:
|View||Height (cm)||Color and aroma of flowers||Description|
|Silver||20-60.||Dark blue with a red middle.||Silky leaves.|
|Dwarf||20-50.||Blue, white, blue.||Early flowering, unpretentious. Flowers can be cut for bouquets.|
|Narrow-leaved||80-150.||Pink, purple or white, odorless.||One year old, with an erect stem.|
|White||150-200.||Snow-white, light pink, odorless blue.||Annual, drought tolerant. Accumulates a lot of nitrogen - 2 kg.|
|Yellow||100.||Yellow or yellow-orange, fragrant.||Heat-loving annual. The stem is pubescent, there is little foliage.|
|Multi-sheeted||80-120, brush length 30-35.||Deep blue.||Perennial. Frost-resistant, precocious. Well repels rodents.|
Varieties of lupine are distinguished by a variety of shades and coloring, for example: Abendglut, Rubinkenig. Many were bred by an English breeder and named after him - Russell hybrids. They are very popular and are planted in groups in gardens and parks, for example: Burg Froilin, Castellan. The diameter of the flower in some reaches 2 cm.
Well-known varieties of annuals:
- Siderat 38.
Classical lupins: blue, blue and white, they germinate better and are less whimsical to care than varieties with spectacular colors.
Due to the fact that the plant gets along well with other flowers, it is possible to embody various ideas of landscape design. Lupine is good for gardens made in a romantic or English style. It looks beautiful as borders or planted along walls and fences. As a background for lower peonies, chrysanthemums or asters. Harmonious with cosmea, delphinium or bells, and iris, geranium or poppy are also suitable.
Lupine planting dates
The timing depends on the method chosen, if you plan to grow seedlings, then it is better to do this early - in March.
When sowing seeds in open ground, do not rush, it is necessary that the snow comes off and the earth warms up well.
The best time is mid-spring - April or May.
Another option to do this in the winter, they usually try to choose the end of October, it is important not to forget to add peat to the soil.
Growing Lupine from Seeds
This method of cultivation is suitable for regions with cold winters and spring. Seeds are sown in boxes with loose soil made up of two parts of sod land, peat and one sand. The mixture is made for better drainage. Planting material must be deepened by 2 cm into the ground.
For the formation of nitrogen-containing bacteria, the seeds are pre-mixed with powder from the crushed roots of old lupins. And to accelerate germination, you can violate the integrity of the shells a little rubbing with sandpaper.
Often an adult lupine dissipates on its own. After the beans have ripened, their leaves open and the light seeds fly apart.
For more shoots to appear, the container is placed in a warm place and covered with a damp cloth. Shoots appear after 18-20 days, the optimum temperature for germination is +20 ° C.
Material for planting has a long shelf life of 5 years. Most of the flowers grown from purchased seeds in the next season acquire purple or blue shades. Therefore, some varieties need updating.
Care for lupine seedlings and planting them in the ground
A month later, when the first true leaves appear, it is necessary to plant seedlings in the ground. If you do not do it on time, there is a risk of damaging the roots and seedlings may not take root and begin to wither. For the same reason, transplantation of more adult lupins is not recommended.
You need to place the sprouts at a distance of 30-50 cm, so that they can grow in width and not interfere with each other. A spacious plot is good.
Unpretentious to the substrate. The soil is slightly acidic, but due to soil transformation, it can grow in almost any, because independently increase the pH level. In a year or two it becomes neutral. On acidic soils, lime should be added before planting, 5 liters per 1 m², this will reduce calcium levels. Peat can be added to an alkaline environment, per 1 m² of land 5 kg.
Sowing Lupine in the open ground
First you need to prepare the soil, this is best done in the fall. Dig a shovel on one bayonet, the planned area and fertilize with superphosphate and ash.
It is possible to sow in soil in the spring in April or May, in previously loosened soil. From 5 to 7 seeds are placed in one hole, the distance between the holes is 6-7 cm. Shoots appear after 8-14 days. The site is better to choose well-lit, the plant loves sunlight. Seedlings can be discharged, but their height should not exceed 15 cm. There should be no more than 2 real leaves, otherwise they will not take root in a new place. When transferring, it is necessary to shade pots with ventilation holes.
The disadvantage of planting seeds is that the flowers of a grown plant can have a completely different shade. It often turns purple, the rarest is white.
The deadline for sowing seeds is June; the plant will bloom only in the next season.
Caring for a long-term lupine is quite simple:
- Weeding and loosening the soil.
- In spring, watering is active, later moderate.
- If the basal part is exposed, hilling will help.
- To increase the flowering time, it is necessary to remove the blooming brushes.
- Tall plants sometimes break from strong winds, they need to be tied to supports.
- It is optimal to plant Lupine for 4-6 years, after replacing it with young specimens.
- Fertilizer should be applied the next year after planting. Any complex, nitrogen free will do. On 1 m² you need 20 gr.
Inspection for the presence of parasites is mandatory: tuberous weevil, aphids or larvae of the sprout fly. Prevention and treatment of insecticides from diseases: root and gray rot, anthracnose, rust.
Vegetative propagation of lupine
If lupine is for decoration, then in order to preserve the color of the mother plant, a vegetative method of reproduction is used. However, only young bushes need to be divided; adults take root much worse.
When grafting in spring, it is better to use basal rosettes located at the base of the stem. The first inflorescences of a grown plant will form in the fall.
Cuttings are cut in the summer when flowering ends. Rooted in sandy soil, with diffused light or partial shade. Transplanted to the flowerbed after 20 days, when the roots are formed.
Mr. Summer resident recommends: lupine - siderat
This wonderful green manure is green manure. Conducted studies have revealed its superiority over manure in terms of phosphorus and potassium. The plant can accumulate in the soil up to 200 kg of nitrogen. Perfectly restores clay, loamy and sandy types of soils.
For agriculture, perennials are more often used. They are unpretentious and resistant to frost. Annual plants also have a plus, their growth is easier to control.
Two months after planting, during the appearance of the buds, the lupins are mowed and embedded in the soil. To accelerate decay, they shed with bacterial fertilizer: Baikal, Bokashi. Usually the process takes 2 weeks, after which you can plant other crops.
There is another way, it is used if a subsequent landing is not planned. The green mass is left on the surface, periodically watered with water and drugs with effective microorganisms (EM).
Autumn is usually sown in September-October, choosing frost-resistant varieties. It can be planted in August and the lupine manages to grow to cold weather, then it is mowed and left to rot in the snow. In spring, the fertilizer is ready.
Here are the crops that grow comfortably in the neighborhood of lupine:
- a tomato,
As siderat, it is better not to plant next to the onion, which will be poorly formed and stored. Because of the danger of infection with similar diseases, it is also not recommended to make beds next to peas and beans.
Lupine, which is initially perceived by many as a weed, can also bring tangible benefits. Enrich the earth with useful substances as fertilizer, be feed for animals and fish, or become a bright decoration of the flower bed. And planting and grooming according to the rules will help to get a healthy and strong plant.
Lupine - description and description
It is believed that this plant is quite undemanding, but you still need to follow certain rules for care. Only then will lupine please you with its beauty and grace. Usually this culture is grown by seedlings. Seeds are planted on seedlings in early spring, but seedlings can be transplanted into open ground only when two or three pairs of true healthy leaves are formed on each plant. And usually seedlings are planted on a flower bed in April. If you want to plant seeds directly in the open ground, it is best to do this in late spring, you can plant lupine in late autumn. This plant usually blooms in late spring, early summer. This culture blooms for a long time, almost a month. Lupine needs bright sunlight, only in such conditions does this plant feel comfortable. If we talk about the soil, then the type of soil can be any, but these plants feel best on loam, but if we talk about acidity, then a slightly acidic or slightly alkaline environment is suitable. It is recommended to water the plant quite intensively, and it will be necessary to do this abundantly in the spring, when the lupine fades, the irrigation regime will need to be adjusted, reduced. Feed the plant is recommended from the age of two. In spring, fertilizer can be added to the soil with the content of useful trace elements, and in summer, a complex mineral fertilizer is suitable for feeding. Lupine is propagated by seeds, the immunity of plants is quite high, however, it is still necessary to protect the culture from rot, wilting, rust, weevils.
Lupine has a rooted root system. That is why this culture does not need moisture so much. Roots can sometimes go deep by almost 2 m. As you recall, all legumes enrich the soil with nitrogen, so on the surface roots you can see small swellings that convert nitrogen from the air into a form accessible to plants, saturating the soil. The stems of plants have a woody or grassy shape, shoots are either erect or creeping, the branches are slightly protruding. Sheet plates have a rather complex structure. The stipule is long, and the leaf pillow has a large shape. The inflorescences are racemose, on each of them a lot of flowers develop, which can be of a wide variety of colors, from white and yellow to purple and cream. Different subspecies of this culture differ in the forms of inflorescences, the size of the shoots, as well as the color of the flowers. It is believed that the American species of these beans are much smaller than the Mediterranean. Usually, when the beans dry, they begin to crack, and the seeds quickly fly around the surrounding area, so the plant multiplies efficiently. However, this culture is used not only to decorate flower gardens and household plots, many use these legumes in order to enrich the soil with useful substances. Few people know that lupine is considered an excellent siderat. When the shoots and leaves of these plants rot in the ground, they turn into fertilizer. And very often gardeners grow fodder lupine, which, you guessed it, is suitable for feeding animals.
As you remember, this culture is usually grown by seedlings. In order to grow this beautiful plant, you will need to plant seeds for seedlings in March. To do this, the container should be filled with nutritious, loose soil with the addition of turf soil, peat and sand. In order for the seeds to develop more intensively, turning into mature plants, you can previously combine planting material with the frayed roots of dried lupins. This accelerates the growth of bacteria in the soil, which means that seedlings will develop faster. Usually the first sprouts are shown after a week, it is during this period that you will need to remove the film or glass from the pots and rearrange the containers with seedlings on the windowsill. However, remember that if you grow lupine from seeds, then new plants will not always meet varietal requirements, many signs of seedlings are not preserved. Therefore, these plants are most often grown from seeds by professionals. It is believed that if lupine has flowers painted in purple or pink, then these signs persist in the next generation, because they are dominant. But the white color, by contrast, is often lost in the process of growing this crop. Therefore, very often in new plants, the color of the flowers does not match the parent. When you plant seedlings in open ground, be careful. This should only be done when two or three pairs of healthy leaves appear on each seedling. However, it should not be delayed with a transplant, as you remember, the root system of this culture is pivotal, which means that if all the seedlings are too large, then during the picking process you can easily injure the roots, which means that the lupine will not take root in open ground. However, do not worry, lupine can be grown without seedlings. Seeds are often planted in open ground. This will need to be done when the snow cover is completely gone, it is recommended to prepare the site for planting this crop in advance. Namely in the fall. Most often, gardeners plant seeds before winter, planting at the end of October. This method has many advantages, but there are almost no contraindications. Such natural selection favorably affects the formation of immunity.Before the onset of cold weather, sprouts do not have time to appear, which means that such a natural stratification favorably affects the appearance of spring shoots. It is best to deepen the seeds into the soil by no more than 2 cm, on top of the infield with beds it is covered with peat. This material is used as mulch. In spring, the entrances always appear quite amicably, however, this crop will begin to bloom after the autumn sowing only in August, so you should not wait for the inflorescences too early. As we mentioned earlier, it is best to plant these plants on sandy or clay soil. If we talk about the level of acidity, then a slightly alkaline soil is suitable for planting these plants, you can plant lupine in the area where the acidity is slightly increased. The beds must be open, well-lit. If your garden has too acidic soil, then in autumn you can produce it. To do this, dolmatite flour or lime is embedded in the soil, the procedure is carried out once every several years, if on the site the soil is alkaline, then it is better to plant a little peat in the soil. All these substrates will need to be dug up so that beneficial substances are not washed. In spring, seedlings are planted in such a way that the distance between plants is about 30-50 cm. It is at such a distance that these bushes normally develop.
Blue lupine, or narrow-leaved (L. angustifolius), is the most common among annual lupins. Despite the name, inflorescences, in addition to blue, can be pink, sometimes white. It reaches a height of 1.5 m. The most cold-resistant of annual lupins.
White lupine (L. albus) is the largest of the annuals, with a height of more than 1.5 m. The flowers are white, pale blue or pale pink. The most drought tolerant, therefore, best suited for sowing in the aisles of garden crops.
Lupine yellow (L. lutes) is the most thermophilic, therefore it is suitable only for the southern regions. It reaches a height of 1 m. All three species are very effective as siderates, as well as for fertilizing the soil, as they give a large amount of green mass in a short time.
A variety of varieties and hybrids, united in the L. hybridus group - hybrid lupine, are very popular among gardeners. Representatives of this group are very diverse in size (0.5–1.2 m) and in color of inflorescences. The Pink Fairy variety is particularly popular - undersized, not more than 60 cm high, with beautiful bicolor inflorescences: in the lower part pink and white, in the upper pure white. It often blooms, reaching a height of 30 cm. It has a pleasant smell, which is rare for lupins.
The most unpretentious and cold-resistant among perennial lupins is the many-leafed lupine (L. polyphyllus). That is why it is most often found in garden plots, and is also a favorite object of breeders. Plant height - up to 1 m, large inflorescences, beautiful blue.
Lupine multivalent was involved by breeders in the creation of almost all varieties of perennial lupins, and there are a lot of such varieties. There are whole cultivars of undersized, about 50 cm, Lulu and Minaret lupins, affecting the richness and variety of colors of inflorescences. The Lulu series also has the shortest flowering time - less than two months after planting. Of the tall varieties, yellow Kronleuchter, red Main Schloss, white Burg froilen, as well as two-tone Kastellan (purple with white sail) and Shlossfrau (pink with white) are especially beautiful.
Many gardeners are afraid to start lupins in their area, considering it an aggressive weed that you can’t get out later. Lupine is really so unpretentious that it takes root almost everywhere, propagating very quickly by self-seeding. However, this problem can be easily dealt with by removing faded inflorescences immediately after flowering (if seeds are not needed) or by collecting yellowed and slightly dried beans from the plant before they crack. Removing inflorescences immediately after flowering is also beneficial in that it stimulates a second wave of flowering in August. In addition to timely pruning of inflorescences and collecting seeds, for the cultivation of lupine, it is necessary to observe several simple requirements:
● the place where lupine grows should be lit by the sun for at least 4 hours a day,
● for tall varieties, the place must be protected from the wind,
● soil - any, except strongly alkaline, best of all - sandy loam or loamy with a pH not exceeding 7.5,
● moderate watering, do not allow the soil to dry out,
● top dressing if necessary (fertilizers without nitrogen),
● preparation for winter - cut off the dried stem and, if necessary, cover the exposed root neck with earth,
● the term for growing perennial lupins is 4–5 years, then the bushes are removed and new ones are planted.
Where in the garden to plant lupine
We have already talked about the use of species lupins for applied purposes, but this flower also occupies a worthy place in landscape design. Lupine is a structural plant with an inflorescence in the shape of a candle, which gives lightness, dynamics and completeness to garden compositions. It fits perfectly into the gardens and front gardens in a natural or rustic style, very well combined with rough brick or masonry. At the same time, and in the strict regular style of the garden, the lupine looks elegant and even solemn. Lupine looks great in the company of peonies, especially at the beginning of flowering. Bright, especially red verticals of varietal lupins will decorate live green hedges, fences, walls of buildings.
The place where lupine grows should be illuminated by the sun for at least 4 hours a day.
It is believed that it is quite easy to grow this culture in your own personal plot. However, if you will grow a perennial culture, then in the first season, special attention should be paid to loosening the soil surface, as well as weeding the site. Mature bushes are recommended to be regularly spudded, because very often the roots of these plants begin to be exposed, so the side rosettes separate, and this does not very well affect the development of the bush. Already at the age of five, it is recommended that lupins be removed from the site, because it is at this time that the middle of the bush begins to die, which means that the decorativeness of the plant is lost. If you have chosen strong-growing varieties, then do not forget about the support; strong gusts of wind may well injure the lupine, so think about this in advance. Do not forget that the plant needs timely pruning of wilted flowers. It is undesirable to allow inflorescences to wilt directly on the plant. It is in this case that decorativeness will be lost, and the lupine will not bloom again, and for the first time, culture will not bloom for a long time. Therefore, remove dry inflorescences regularly, in which case the decorativeness of the culture will be simply magnificent. And with proper care, many perennials will bloom again later in the fall. This plant is watered especially intensively in the spring, in the summer and in the fall, the irrigation regime is adjusted. At first, plants do not need to be fed, but at the age of two, it is quite possible to introduce complex mineral fertilizer into the soil. However, fertilizing the site with nitrogen is undesirable, because this plant copes with this task so well. Its roots themselves produce nitrogen from the air, which is why many other crops grow beautifully after legumes. It is recommended to add calcium chloride to the soil, as well as superphosphate. Feeding is best done in the spring, before the flowering of plants.
This is an annual herbaceous plant reaching up to 1.5 m in height. It has been grown in Russia since the beginning of the 19th century, it is not as widespread as multi-leafed lupine, it is grown mainly in non-chernozem zones of the country.
It is considered a forage crop, very rich in protein and oils. Resistant to cold, especially at the beginning of the growing season, can withstand up to -7 degrees. Found application in medicine as a medicine, vitamin, in the garden used as an insecticide.
Pests and diseases
As we noted earlier, this culture has not so high immunity, therefore preventive examinations and treatments for the bushes are very necessary. Often aphids settle on plants. And closer to autumn, you can see on the shoots of nodule weevils and larvae of flies. In order to prevent these insects from harming the plantings, you treat the bushes with insecticides on time, which you can purchase at a garden center or an agricultural store. If we talk about diseases, then rot, mosaics, rust, and also some other diseases are considered dangerous for these plants. For preventive purposes, follow the rules of agricultural technology, do not forget about crop rotation, lupine on the site should not grow more than 3 years, so planting legumes in the same place for a longer time is not recommended. And if we talk about previous cultures, then lupine grows well where you previously grown cereals.
It is a perennial, cross-pollinated plant. It has a wide color gamut of flowers and is popular in decorative applications. North America is considered the birthplace, it grows even in the harsh Siberian regions of Russia. Prefers loamy and sandy loamy soils.
The most popular new varieties of lupine multifoliate:
- Schloss Frau (pink lupine),
- Carmenius (red lupine)
- Castellan (violet blue),
- Albus (white lupine),
- Apricot (orange lupine),
- Princess Julianne
- Gavrish (different color of flowers),
It is worth highlighting Russell's lupine - it is distinguished by larger, catchy flowers. Inflorescences have powerful, bright, reaching half a meter length. It does not bloom as long as an ordinary lupine - 3 weeks, starting in June. Normally, seed ripening occurs in August. Grows on any garden land, prefers sunny places. In leaving is not exacting.
Noteworthy. Lake Tekapo in New Zealand, which is just strewn with Russell's lupins, is a place of unreal beauty.
Less attractive, but quite catchy is the Minaret Lupine - it is distinguished by openwork leaves and giant pyramidal ears of inflorescences. Blooms for 20-30 days in June, if faded flowers are removed on time, it will bloom again in August. Seeds are best sown before winter, after the first frost, 2 cm deep, sprinkled with peat. Undemanding to soil composition, photophilous.
White lupine is a self-pollinating annual with a long growing season. Representatives of this species are able to reach 2 meters in height. Leaflets of the plant are obovate or oblong, inflorescences in the form of a small brush, white or blue-white. The fruit is a bean containing 3-6 smooth seeds of a cubic form. Planting is desirable in southern, fairly humid areas. It is considered the most high-yielding bean crop.
Popular types of Belyi Lupine: Gamma, Desniansky, Degas.
Narrow-leafed lupine (blue lupine)
Blue lupine is an annual, self-pollinating plant, reaching a height of up to 1.5 m. Lupine is narrow-leaved, despite its second name (blue), has a different color of inflorescences: purple, pink, white. Seeds are distinguished by an unusual "marble" pattern on the surface, have a rounded or kidney-shaped shape. Inflorescences are often blue, less often white. Leaves consist of 5-9 narrow linear leaves.
Narrow-leafed lupine is characterized by frost resistance, precocity and unpretentiousness in leaving. Less heat-loving than yellow and white lupine, but more demanding on moisture. The yield of green mass is up to 250 kg / ha.
The most common varieties of narrow-leaved lupine: Crystal, Rainbow, Snow, Nadezhda, Smena, Vityaz, Siderat 38.
Attention! Lupine Siderat 38 is not suitable for animal feed - in the root system of the plant a significant content of ethyl alcohol derivatives.
An annual cross-pollinated plant not exceeding 1 m. Lupine yellow has a powerful root system, palmate, elongated, densely pubescent leaves. Inflorescences in the form of an ear are yellow or light orange in color, very fragrant. Light - and thermophilic (at -5 degrees the plant dies), is demanding on watering. It is rarely used as a decor for the plot, since the flowers are not noticeable enough, it is valued as a forage crop (its cultivation occupies 80% of the sown area).
Varieties of cattle breeders are popular: Prestige, Grodno 3, Nadezhny, Zhytomyr, Fakel, Demidovsky.
Annual white-grain lupine is an unpretentious, medium-tall plant (30-50 cm), upright, indeterminate, with large green or dark green leaves and beautiful fragrant flowers. The apical leaf is short, narrow. The inflorescences are bluish-white, the tip of the boat is yellow. He loves light, does not tolerate shaded places, is cold-resistant. Easily propagated independently (self-seeding). The transplant is given to the plant hard. Weakly affected by root rot and anthracnose.
It grows well on poor sandy, loamy and clay soils, and does not tolerate acidic environments. Hydrophilous and photophilous, in the shade the plant withers. White-grain lupine does not need forming pruning, it is only necessary to remove leafless stems with already faded brushes - a certain kind of stimulation of new flower buds. Chipping, or mechanical pinching of lateral shoots, as a way to increase the biological value of seeds in the crop is extremely rare. Especially on an industrial scale, since it is impossible to process such a huge number of bushes without special equipment. When growing single bushes, this manipulation is possible, but has a huge minus - the wounds on the stem become unhindered gates for the penetration of pathogenic organisms into the plant.
Important! Sowing the seeds of Belozerny lupine in open ground is carried out in April-May, flowering begins in June-July.
Care after flowering
As we noted earlier, lupine beans often crack, which means that the seeds fly around. If you want to collect planting material and plant lupins for the next year, then you need to collect the beans until they are completely dry and cracked. As soon as you notice that the pods begin to turn yellow and dry quickly, the fruits are best cut off. Seeds may well be finished in your home, on a newspaper or paper. When the plants bloom, it is advisable to prune foliage and peduncles. If you need seeds in the future, collect them. Perennials recommend hilling, for this it is advisable to cover them with peat. This is done so that the root neck is not exposed. Before wintering, it is recommended to fall asleep with sawdust, so it will be more comfortable for the plants to winter, and under such a blanket they rarely freeze out.
As promised earlier, we will tell you about what varieties and types of lupine currently exist.
And the first variety is blue lupine. This plant is quite tall. Its shoots are able to reach a meter and a half. The branches are erect, slightly omitted. Leaf plates have a large shape, flowers, unfortunately, have no aroma. However, to your surprise, they are not blue in color, and quite often pink and white inflorescences, and sometimes purple, form in lupins. Probably because of this, this variety got its name.
Leafy lupine in its natural habitat is found in North American regions. It is quite frost-resistant. The plant is not demanding on growing conditions. If you follow the basic rules of agricultural technology, then lupine will surely delight you with beautiful inflorescences. This culture feels great in the middle latitudes. In height, the bush grows more than 1 m. Its shoots are quite thick, straight. The leaf plates are slightly lowered. Inflorescences reach a length of 35 cm. The flowers have a blue color, the culture blooms usually in early summer, and the inflorescences begin to wilt after a month, in August sometimes the bushes bloom again.
The Yellow Lupine forms the same beautiful leaf plates. The stem of this variety is slightly leafy. Annual plants. Inflorescences, you guessed it, have a yellow color, lupine has a fairly pleasant aroma. Petioles of plants are long, and leaves are down.
White lupine is also considered a beautiful variety. Its shoots are erect, branching upstairs. Palm leaf plates. A beautiful silver color is visible on the villi. The leaves are smooth on the front side, but the inflorescences do not smell, the color of the flowers is pinkish, blue or white.
Currently, there are other varieties of this culture, such as dwarf lupine, perennial and others. Many gardeners also love the graceful hybrids of this culture, which also usually bloom in summer, have brightly colored inflorescences, and a decorative appearance. It’s easy to take care of the lupine bushes, and after growing this plant, you can plant almost any crop on the site. No wonder these legumes are used as siderate. Therefore, lupine is considered not only a beautiful plant, but also very useful. At least for your garden plot and for the ground.
Distribution and ecology
Most species are concentrated in two large regions: the Mediterranean-African (Eastern Hemisphere) and the American (Western Hemisphere).
In the Mediterranean and Africa, 12 species of lupine are described, among which 11 annual and 1 perennial, but apparently already extinct species. Lupins of this region grow mainly by foci on light soils mainly at low altitudes or sea coasts.
In the Western Hemisphere, lupins are distributed from 0 to 4800 meters above sea level and above, from Patagonia to Alaska (Yukon) and from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. The greatest diversity is observed in the subalpine and alpine zones of the Andes and Cordillera. Moreover, in alpine plant formations, lupins play a dominant role. These communities usually include perennial tall (grassy and shrubby) species, often reaching heights of 4 meters or more. In arid places with less fertile soils of high mountains, undersized, pillow forms are found. In the lower zone of the mountains and on the plains of America, one-, two-year-old lupins often grow, many of which live on poor soils and in very arid areas. Among them are ephemerals.
On the number of species of lupins growing in America, opinions are different. Most researchers agree that the number of actually existing lupine species, excluding synonyms, is no more than 200. Of the American lupine species, it was cultivated by the ancient Incas in the 7th – 6th centuries BC. e. and widely cultivated at present on different continents is a mutable lupine ( Lupinus mutabilis Sweet). In many countries, many-leafed lupine is naturalized or cultivated ( Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. )
By its nature, lupine is xeromesophyte, characterized by high drought tolerance. Some species of lupine grow in the deserts of the states of Arizona, Oregon, Texas, California, New Mexico, on the highlands of Mexico, in the deserts of Peru and Chile, oases of the Sahara.
In the Mediterranean countries, lupins grow on coastal sands, in meadows and deposits, in clefts of rocks and clog crops of cultivated plants. Most lupins are adapted to moderate temperatures, but some North American species, for example, Lupinus arcticus tolerate very low temperatures.
Cultivation and use
Interest in lupine is due to the high content in its seeds of protein (up to 50%), oil (from 5 to 20%), similar in quality to olive, the absence of digestive inhibitors and other anti-nutritional substances.
Since ancient times, lupine seeds have been used for human food and animal feed. The green mass of non-alkaloid varieties is also an excellent feed. Thanks to symbiosis with nodule bacteria, lupine is able to accumulate in the soil up to 200 kg of nitrogen per hectare and is an excellent green manure. Its use as a green fertilizer allows you to keep the environment clean, save expensive fertilizers, and grow environmentally friendly products.
Lupine is also used in medicine and pharmacology, floriculture, forestry, as feed for fish farming.
Species of lupine nectar do not secrete, but give pollen to honey bees.
Lupines began to be cultivated 4,000 years ago. White lupine (L. albus), which was used in Ancient Greece, Egypt, the Roman Empire for food, feed, medical and fertilizing purposes. Variable lupine was cultivated on the American continent (L. mutabilis).
However, it should be noted that the successes of mankind in the cultivation of lupine are still very modest.
Of the several hundred species of lupine present in nature, in agricultural production in Russia only three annual species are used as fodder crops (Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus) and one perennial species (Lupinus polyphyllus) However, many types of lupine are promising for use in agricultural production.
Lupine selection is carried out in many scientific institutions based on its genetic characteristics. An urgent problem in lupin seeding is the fight against diseases, the most harmful of which is anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata (Ston.) Sp. Et Schr., Conidial stage - Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes (Penz.) Penz and Sass., And Colletotrichum acutatum Simm. And Simmonds) . The most radical path in this direction is the creation of disease-resistant varieties.