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Spring bloom (Leucojum vernum)

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Among other early flowering species, the spring bloom (Leucójum vérnum) is distinguished not only from afar by the noticeable color of the flowers, but also by their unusual shape. When viewed, the flower very much resembles a lily of the valley, but only, firstly, in comparison with the latter, it is of gigantic proportions, and secondly, on the peduncle it is one, and not a whole brush, like that of a lily of the valley.

From tops to roots

The classically correct 6-pointed corolla “star” characteristic of the whole family is also present here. Only its shape is not narrowed, but resembling a wide lampshade with a fringe of the times of the not-distant 40-50s of the XX century.

The tips of the petals, coquettishly bent outward, bear on their center a small unpaired stain of color either pale green or greenish-yellow, equally distinctly distinguishable both from the inside and from the front side of the petal.

The inside of the flower is also classical: 1 pistil and 6 freely growing, evenly spaced stamens not protruding from the corolla.

Narrowly linear (or slightly elliptical) in shape, leaves with linear venation also do not leave the stem, as in other plants, but are “sprayed with a fountain” directly from a bulb located in a shallow soil. They either stick up strictly upward with a slightly crumbling beam, or have slightly inclined tips.

Spring flower garden in the photo:

About impatience and passion

The desire to quickly pierce a layer of earth to complete the miracle of flowering by tying berries, demonstrate all parts of the plant:

  • narrow-lancet-like leaves, originally gathered into an elastic, sharp “bayonet”,
  • an equally sharp bud, blossoming into a flower, tilting down to hang not far from the soil.

Given the very low probability of pollination by insects, the plant carefully creates a wide lampshade from the flower, which at the same time protects the inside of the corolla from rain and snow, and at the same time is able to roof the first spring bee or fly - the ovary should not be wasted! The sweet aroma flowing from a cup serves the same purpose of stimulating pollination - it is not intended for humans, but for insects.

But people tore the first spring flower with such primitive gluttony that in the end he “moved” to live in the Red Book of Ukraine and other areas where he had been abundant before.

It would seem that such a crime, if you pick up the white-headed handsome men and put a bouquet at home? But then the precious ovary will disappear and the seed will not be planted, the bush from which will bloom only for 5-6 years.

As if realizing this, the flower garden has developed the ability to parallel reproduction method - by dividing the bulbs. But the man podsuetsilsya and here: nullifying oak, beech and ash forests, he literally knocks the soil from under the legs of the plant.

Fortunately, human passion can easily be quenched by planting the same white flower bulbs in your own garden, so in the near future you can still admire the beautiful primrose and it will not leave the face of the earth along with beech forests.

Breeding

In light of the foregoing, reproduction by bulbs and bulb children is the easiest way to breed a lovely “snowdrop” on the plot. Yes, it’s a “snowdrop,” because Galanthus vernus (spring snowdrop) is one of the botanical names of this culture along with the officially accepted Leucojum vernum (from ancient Greek leukos - milky white).

Photo: bulbs of a spring bloom

After the 3-4-week flowering is over, the green parts of the plant dry out - a period of rest begins. And already at the end of August, “nests” from the bulbs can be separated and embedded into the soil to 4-5 cm depth (the count goes from the level of the bottom). This type of work can be performed later, until the end of October (depending on the weather).

The division of "nests" is required infrequently, after 5-7 years.

Soil should be imitated similar to natural - it should be:

  • easy
  • loose
  • nutritious enough
  • permeable to air
  • not holding water.

The only serious requirement is not too high soil acidity.

The requirements for the landing site are simple - it should be:

  • light (but shaded in the summer),
  • easily warmed by spring sunshine.

The best is the area under the deciduous tree, on a site well saturated with spring moisture.

It is not worth counting on seed propagation - their germination is quickly lost, and flowering must be waited for 6-7 years.

Caring for a spring bloom

There are few questions with the white flower during planting and care. This is the usual set of operations performed for any bulb crops:

  • quite abundant watering (according to the weather),
  • weeding,
  • adequate (assessed by plant condition) fertilizer,
  • warming when left in the ground for the winter (although spring bloom refers to herbaceous plants for open ground, precaution will not interfere).

Bulbs can be enjoyed by moles and mice, and roots can be enjoyed by a bulb nematode.

Green mass should be treated with:

  • attack of caterpillars of butterflies from the Scoop squad,
  • fungal, viral diseases,
  • chlorosis.

The slugs are collected by hand or beer traps are used.

When storing bulbs, they are able to quickly dry out, so they are placed in a well-ventilated bag, sprinkled with moist peat.

Spring white flower is a suitable plant for forcing flowers in winter, and in spring - for creating fragrant bouquets (the height of an arrow of 25 cm allows you to get this pleasure).

Types of "Belotsvetnik"

The soil
  • Nutritious, neutral, well-drained
Flowering time
  • April to May
Possible colors
    Illumination
    • Medium // Acceptable direct rays for several hours, eastern, western orientation
    Watering
    • Medium // Heavy watering 2-3 times a week
    Difficulty of care
    • Little // Does not need special requirements for growth and flowering
    Air humidity
    • Little // Undemanding to moisture in water
    Fertilizer frequency
    • Medium // Fertilizer only during the period of active growth (minimum during the rest period)
    Content temperature
    • moderately warm content (+18 - + 25 ° C)

    Description

    The flower garden is a delicate plant from the Amaryllis family. Due to the external similarity and the same flowering time, it is often confused with Snowdrop. Nevertheless, Belotsvetnik is an independent, albeit small, genus.

    The birthplace of perennial small bulb plants, in the Latin name of which the words "milk" and "violet" are intertwined, is the Mediterranean. However, the fragile representatives of the flora quite successfully expanded the area, moving to regions with fairly cold winters and rainy springs.

    From a small ovoid bulb, covered with brown scales, a strong peduncle stretches in the spring. Leaves and flowers appear at the same time. Leaf blades are bright green, glossy, have a linear shape. Drooping flowers solitary or collected in apical umbrellas. Unlike Snowdrop, all the tepals of plants of this genus are of the same shape and size. The tips of snow-white petals are decorated with a yellow or green speck.

    Accompanied by a fragrance, the flowering of the flower garden lasts 20-30 days, after which the fruit is formed - a box with oblong seeds. And then the ground part dies off until next year.

    Growing

    The flower garden decorates lawns, borders, alpine hills. Pottery content and distillation are also possible. Along with decorativeness, this plant is famous for its complete lack of moods.

    When growing a flower garden, two very important points should be taken into account. Firstly, it looks most advantageous in group landings. It is recommended to plant at least five specimens nearby. Secondly, the ground part dies completely, leaving behind a bare spot. Therefore, it is desirable to place plants that take on camouflage functions next to the Greaterflower. Verbena Hybrid, Petunia, Alissum perfectly cope with such a role.

    There is no need to dig up the bulbs. They perfectly survive the period of rest in the open ground. In colder regions, winter shelter may be required.

    Propagation of the flower garden by daughter bulbs. Each season, 1-2 children are formed. Mandatory seating of the nest is carried out every 5-6 years.

    In the cut, the flower garden retains freshness for 1–1.5 weeks.

    Composition and properties

    The flower garden is rich in alkaloids (galantamine, isotetacetin, lycorenine, licorin, tacetin), as well as carotenoids and flavonoids (found in flowers).
    The flower garden has an expectorant effect, increases the tone of smooth muscles, balances the processes of excitation and inhibition.
    In official medicine, based on the white flower, preparations are made that are used to treat:

    • neuralgia
    • disorders of the nervous system,
    • facial nerve lesions
    • cerebral palsy
    • encephalopathy
    • poisoning with opium.

    In folk medicine, whiteflower is used for:

    • nervous excitability
    • psychoses
    • motor impairment
    • lowering the sensitivity of the body,
    • paralysis.

    Tincture for disorders of the nervous system (motor, sensory):

    • 1 part fresh fresh grass
    • 10 parts of 96% alcohol.

    Fill the grass with alcohol and put in a dark place for 10 days. Strain the resulting tincture. Take 2-4 drops, diluting in 100-150 ml of water, 3-4 times a day.

    Contraindications

    • children
    • pregnant and lactating women
    • with bradycardia, angina pectoris,
    • with bronchial asthma,
    • with epilepsy,
    • with hyperkinesis,
    • with individual intolerance.

    Attention! The flower garden is a poisonous plant! Before starting treatment with a white flower, you should consult a doctor and strictly follow the recommendations for taking the drug.

    Helianthus (Leucojum)

    Perennial herbaceous bulbous plant with rosette leaves and leafless peduncle. It has medicinal value, in particular, the leaves are used for the industrial production of galantamine, used in medical practice. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant.

    In medicine

    The flower garden is a promising medicinal plant; its aerial part contains the alkaloid galantamine, which has been used in medicine in recent years to treat paralysis. Galantamine has the ability to increase smooth muscle tone, as well as exert an effect that balances two nervous processes - excitation and inhibition. Tincture in the form of drops is taken for psychosis, sensory and motor disorders.

    Contraindications and side effects

    The flower garden belongs to the number of poisonous plants, therefore it should be used with caution for medicinal purposes. The use of the white flower is contraindicated in epilepsy, hyperkinesis, bronchial asthma, angina pectoris, bradycardia, as well as during pregnancy, breast-feeding and in childhood.

    In gardening

    The flower garden is a valuable ornamental plant. Often, summer bloom is used in landscaping when decorating stony gardens and ponds, borders, in mixed plantings. It is also used for group plantings, in rock gardens and rockeries (especially in the shade). The white flower is also suitable as a pot culture, as well as for cutting, in water the flowers retain their decorative qualities for two weeks.

    Classification

    The flower garden (lat. Leucojum) is a small genus of the Amaryllis family (lat. Amaryllidaceae). The genus unites about 10 species of herbaceous plants. Of these, 2 species: summer bloom (Latin Leucojum Aestivum) and spring bloom (Latin Leucojum vernum) are found in Russia. Both species have conservation status and are in the Red Book of the USSR.

    Botanical Description

    Helianthus is a small bulbous perennial with a height of 30-50 cm. Some types of hemiefemeroids. The bulb is ovoid, up to 2 cm across. The leaves are rosette, bluish-green, broadly lanceolate, up to 25 cm long, up to 1.2 cm wide. Peduncles up to 30 cm long. The flowers are small up to 3 cm long, white, ringed, with a bract in the base, with a pleasant smell, located on long peduncles of 1-2, or collected in drooping umbrella-shaped or small-flowered curls. The perianth is simple, the petals are pure white with a green or yellow spot at the apex. Stamens with white filaments and bright yellow conical anthers. Column pestle filiform or fusiform, with a small capitate stigma. The fetus is a loculicidal fleshy box. Seeds are provided with an eliosome. It blooms in April-May.

    Spread

    The range of growth of the flower garden is quite wide: it extends from Ireland through Central and Southern Europe, entering the Crimea and the Caucasus (Northern Caucasus, Western Transcaucasia), as well as capturing the northern coast of Africa. It grows in a variety of conditions - in marshy places, along streams of thawed snow, along the edges of the forest, in sparse deciduous forests, on dry places on the coast of North Africa.

    Harvesting of raw materials

    Medicinal value is grass (stems, leaves, flowers). Raw materials are harvested in dry weather, during flowering, when the largest amount of biologically active substances accumulate in them. The grass is dried outdoors in the shade under awnings, in attics, as well as in well-ventilated rooms. Store the dried raw materials in paper bags or boxes. Flowers are stored for 1 year, grass - 2 years.

    Pharmacological properties

    The therapeutic effect of the white flower is primarily due to the content of alkaloids, in particular galantamine. Preparations based on it, in particular nivalin, nivalier, etc. inhibit the activity of cholinesterase, stabilize the content of acetylcholine, exhibit a cholinomimetic effect, increase the tone of smooth muscles, etc. In addition, the white flower exhibits an expectorant effect.

    Application in traditional medicine

    In folk medicine, the flower garden is used as an expectorant for bronchiectasis, as well as for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, especially paralysis. The tsentrots in traditional medicine is used for psychoses, lowering the sensitivity of the body, as well as for motor disorders. In these diseases, healers also recommend an extract - alcohol tincture of fresh grass of the white flower (2-3 drops per 100 ml of water). A decoction of the leaves of the stamen is used for diseases such as epilepsy, nervous irritability, asthma.

    In this case, it must be remembered that the white flower is a fairly poisonous plant, when taking tincture inside, increased precautions should be observed!

    Historical reference

    The generic scientific name comes from the Greek words "leucos" - milk, white and "ion" - violet, which indicates the color of the flowers. Initially, the flower garden was called "leucocion" - white violet.

    The flower garden as an ornamental plant in culture since 1420. In 1969, a stamp with the image of the spring bloom in the series “Protected Plants” was issued in the GDR. The spring flower garden is considered an important attraction of the German city of Ettenstat and is depicted on its coat of arms. In large numbers, the white flower blooms in spring in a forest near this city.

    Literature

    1. Artyushenko Z.T. The flower garden - Leucojum L. // Decorative grassy plants for open ground. L: “Science” Leningrad. Dep., 1977.Vol. 1. P. 106.

    2. Biological Encyclopedic Dictionary / Ch. ed. M.S. Gilyarov. 2nd ed., Rev. M .: Sov. Encyclopedia. 1989.

    3. Plant Life / Ed. A. L. Takhtadzhyan. M .: Education. 1982.Vol. 6. 540 s.

    4. Lozina-Lozinskaya A.S. St. Petersburg - Leucojum L. // Flora of the USSR. L. 1935.V. 4.

    5. Mayevsky P.F.Flora of the middle zone of the European part of Russia. M: T-number of scientific publications of KMK, 2006.S. 160, 161.

    6. Tsitsilin A. N. Medicinal plants in the country and around us. Ed. Eksmo, 2014.336 s.

    The flower garden is summer

    The flower garden is summer (Latin Leucojum aestivum) - a representative of the genus Stamenok family Amaryllis. In nature, it lives mainly in the Mediterranean, the Balkans, in some Caucasian countries and the Crimea (mainly in mountainous areas). Typical places of growth are mountain slopes, river valleys, wet meadows and other areas with well-moistened soils. Belongs to the category of onion crops.

    Culture characteristic

    The summer bloom is represented by perennial herbaceous plants, which are endowed with an ovoid bulb reaching a diameter of 4-5 cm. The foliage is green, with a bluish tint, elongated, narrow, formed from a membranous vagina in the amount of 3-5 pieces. The arrow is hollow, thin, flat, sharp at the tips, the length does not exceed the foliage. The arrow, in turn, is crowned by a membranous wing and greenish short keels.

    The peduncle of the summer bloom does not exceed 5-6 cm, the flowers are small (up to 3 cm in diameter), drooping, collected in umbrella inflorescences of 3-10 pieces. The perianth is white, carries wide lanceolate leaves, the tip of which is pointed. The buds are formed in the third decade of April - the first decade of May, enters the flowering phase in mid-May and later, which depends solely on climatic conditions. Flowering lasts no more than three weeks.

    The fruits are represented by oblong small boxes containing black seeds, the distinguishing feature of which are air pockets and lagging peel. Seeds remain viable for up to 3 years, do not need cold stratification and other processing.

    It is worth noting that the species in question is used in breeding. Today, a very interesting and attractive English variety, called Gravetye Giant, is presented on the market. It is characterized by plants no more than half a meter high, crowned with large flowers with spots of straw color.

    Growing Features

    Unlike many flower crops, the summer bloom prefers semi-shaded areas with diffused light. In open sunny areas, small flowers are formed, they increase the green mass more, they require frequent watering. Soils are preferable well-moistened, nutritious, drained, planting near artificial and natural reservoirs is not forbidden. Well, if the drainage is not fine pebbles, but coarse washed sand.

    It is not recommended to plant summer bloom in areas with poor, dry, saline and heavy soils. In the first case, cultivation is possible if you add a portion of rotted manure and complex mineral fertilizers for digging. By the way, culture also does not tolerate acidic soils, therefore, liming must first be carried out. The species in question does not impose other requirements on soil conditions.

    The subtleties of landing

    Planting a summer flower garden is carried out in the fall, however, it is not forbidden to carry out manipulation in the middle of summer, but in no case in the spring. Bulbs for planting should be moderately dense, heavy, without roots, with a healthy bottom. Cuts are not welcome, especially untreated, soft to the touch and moldy, otherwise the material may rot and will be unsuitable for planting.

    It is necessary to plant immediately after purchase, a long stay in the open air does not bode well. If it is not possible to plant, it is important to lay the bulbs in a container filled with sawdust. When planting, it is necessary to observe the optimal distance (20-25 cm), close planting is not welcome, the plants will interfere with each other, as a result of which it is worse to bloom, to lag behind in growth. The depth of embedding depends solely on the size of the bulb. The larger the bulb, the deeper the planting.

    When to plant

    Planting bulbs is carried out in the middle of summer or early autumn. By this time, the plant will fade, and the bulbs will not be so actively developing. If the autumn season is warmer than usual, it is allowed to postpone the planting of the flower garden for a month or a half.

    When buying a flower garden for planting in open ground, you should carefully choose the bulbs. The skin should be tight, with no signs of damage or illness. The integrity of the shell and scales further affects the development and growth of plants. It is better to purchase bulbs without stems with an underdeveloped root system. Bulbs of a flower garden with regrown roots and shooters need immediate planting in the ground. Planting material with traces of mold, dents or a beaten bottom is laid aside - such bulbs will not bring the desired result. Store material in boxes or bags along with sawdust.

    Garden application

    The spring bloom is a valuable ornamental plant.

    In culture since 1420. Used for group plantings, in rock gardens and rockeries (shadow). Like most bulbs, it is suitable as a pot culture and for cutting. In water, the flowers retain their decorative qualities for 8-10 days.

    Mention in the culture

    In GDR in 1969 a stamp was issued with the image of a spring bloom in the series “Protected Plants”.

    The spring flower garden is depicted on the coat of arms of the German city of Ettenstat, since this plant blooms in spring in large numbers in a forest near the city and is its attraction.

    First steps after purchase

    Growing of the Strawflower from seeds is a long process. They lose germination very quickly, therefore, you need to acquire planting material only this year. Seeds require long-term stratification, so they are sown in summer and autumn. It is recommended to use containers so that small shoots are not lost. At best, seedlings begin to bloom in 6–7 years.

    It is much easier to grow a plant from a bulb. Before buying, you need to carefully inspect and feel it from all sides. Softness is a sure sign of decay; you should refuse to purchase such an instance.

    It should also be borne in mind that the stamen bulbs do not tolerate outdoor content. The maximum storage period is 30 days. It can be extended by sprinkling onions with sawdust and placing in a perforated bag. In the open ground, planting is carried out from July to September. Depth of landing - no more than 2 diameters, distance - from 15 cm.

    Secrets of Success

    The flower garden feels most comfortable in nutrient soils. However, it can be grown on garden soil. It is important to remember that this representative of the flora does not tolerate acidic soils. It is advisable to add some gravel to the hole to improve drainage.

    The flower garden is recommended to be grown in partial shade. The soil should be moist. In arid areas, it is necessary to regularly water the plant, observing moderation.

    Feeding of the flower garden during the growing season. When choosing fertilizers, it should be borne in mind that the need of a plant for potassium and phosphorus is much greater than for nitrogen.

    Possible difficulties

    Moles and mice see the Stamen bulbs as a delicious addition to their daily diet. Installing plants will help save plants. Rodents do not enter such areas.

    If yellowish edema appeared on the leaves of the Stamen, probably the defeat of the bulb nematodes. The site in the section "Diseases and pests" provides treatment methods and drugs.

    Viral diseases are very dangerous. Unfortunately, effective ways to deal with them have not yet been developed. If the leaves are twisted, or there are growths or spots on the surface, then the plant must be destroyed to prevent an epidemic.

    Subscribe and receive descriptions of new species and varieties in the "onion and corm" section of the mail!

    How to plant

    The location of the future flower beds is organized in partial shade near water sources or shrubs. Poor and dry soil will inhibit flower growth, so a well-drained area enriched with organic matter is selected. Digging the ground before planting a white flower, add sand and gravel, and the meager substrate is mixed with rotted manure or dried leaves. Peat and lime are perfect. Such additives will increase the acidity of the soil, which will favorably affect the development of bulbs.

    The location and planting depth of the bulbous bulb is practically no different from other plants of this type. In order for the root system to take root more quickly, the size of the hole should be at least 5-7 cm. The deeper the planting of the white flower will be, the larger the bulb will grow. If you plant material close to the surface, the number of children will only increase every year. At the end of planting events, the flower bed is watered.

    Watering

    In the spring, watering does not make sense. The plant has enough moisture coming to the roots from melt water. In regions where winters pass without snow, and in the spring there is little rainfall, you will have to tinker with watering. The water taken is standing and warm. Water only the roots of the plant. Drops on leaves and flowers cause burns. The need for moisture is associated with the growth of bushes. If you do not pay proper attention to watering, shoot growth slows down.

    Top dressing

    The plantings of the flower garden are fed with complex mineral fertilizers containing little nitrogen, otherwise you can provoke a rapid increase in greenery, but drown the flowering. Dampness and moisture congestion are the cause of fungal diseases, so it is better not to overdo it with watering. Phosphorus fertilizers activate the formation of flowers, and potash fertilizers strengthen the walls of the bulbs. As a result, they painlessly survive the wintering and do not freeze in the soil.

    Diseases and pests of the flower garden

    With improper care, the flower bed undergoes a number of diseases. We are talking about diseases that all primroses encounter, including snowdrops.

    Damage to the shoots, leaves and flowers of the plant is caused by slugs, nematodes, caterpillars, mice and moles. They eat bulbs or damage the skin, which leads to the death of the bush. Caterpillars are harvested by hand before the pupae appear. Another effective way is the treatment of seedlings with insecticidal drugs.

    Bulbous nematodes are called small worms that cause yellow abscesses to form on the surface of leaf blades. Nematodes must be quickly destroyed. The affected bushes are dug up, and the bulbs are soaked in warm water to completely disinfect. The flower garden is not recommended to be planted in the area where traces of nematodes were found, within five years after tillage.

    Slugs that live in dense loam or too fertile lands also pose a threat to white flowers. Before lowering the onion into the hole, coarse sand is poured onto the bottom.

    Mice gnaw on the bulbs or hide them in holes. The skin areas damaged by rodents begin to gradually rot. The characteristic signs that the structure of the underground part of the plant is disturbed is the inhibition of stems and peduncles. To stop the process of decay, the bulbs are dug up and cut off rotted scales, and the wounded areas are sprinkled with ash. When the ash layer dries, they are re-planted in the soil.

    Rodents climb into warm grassy sods or a cluster of branching shoots. For this reason, it is recommended to arrange a flower bed with flower plantings at a certain distance. Mice are wary of wandering far from the location of the hole. In the fight against mice and moles, poisonous baits, which are laid out near cultural plantings, help.

    Viral infections also affect the flower garden from time to time. It is very difficult to cope with such diseases. Symptoms of the virus are expressed as yellowish or pale green spots on leaf blades and tubercles. As a result, the leaves curl and dry. Sick specimens are immediately collected and burned so that the infection does not pass to other plants in the vicinity.

    Gray mold and rust are called bluish plaque and black dots on leaves and stems, which quickly spread to healthy parts of the plant. If the bushes become infected with a fungal disease, they are cut out and burned. Save the landing will not succeed. The plot where the white flower grew is treated with a fungicidal solution.

    Spring bloom (Leucojum vernum)

    Spring white flower is found in areas of European beech forests and in Transcarpathia. The perennial is capable of reaching a length of up to 20 cm, has elongated oval bulbs no larger than 2 cm. In spring varieties, broad-lanceolate leaves and high peduncles predominate. White-tinted flowers are located singly or in pairs. The drooping bud heads exude a lasting pleasant aroma. The upper part of the petals is spotty, yellow and green colors prevail. The opening of the buds begins in mid-spring and lasts about 3-4 weeks. Then a spherical seed box is formed, divided into nests. As a cultural representative of the Amaryllis plant, it became known back in 1420. Carpathicum, a large tall primrose with spotted flowers, belongs to the most popular variety of spring bloom.

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