As in cattle breeding, in pig breeding there are two systems for keeping animals - livestock and non-livestock. With the walking system, pigs are given outdoor walks (exercise) to preserve their health, stimulate physiological processes to harden the body and improve the reproductive function of animals. Often pigs, like cattle, are grazed on pastures in special pens, unless, of course, the farm has sufficient forage land. In this case, it is best that the grass cover of the pasture consist of more delicate (having less fiber in its structure) crops, such as meadow bluegrass and medium starlet (wood lice).
The walking system is divided into mode-walking and free-walking. In the first case, pigs spend most of the day in the pig-house, and they are driven out to walking areas only at certain hours according to the daily routine and for a short time (about 2 to 3 hours a day). With a free-range keeping system, animals are given the opportunity to go for a walk at any time of the day through special manholes in the walls of the pigsty. Indoors are divided into sections for different age and gender groups, and each section has access to its own part of the walking area, also divided into sections. Requirements for walking areas are common for all types of animals. First of all, there must be a hard coating. If it is not, then such a coating is done in places of feeding and watering animals. The pig walking area is fenced with a solid fence so that the animal can neither jump over nor crawl through the fence. However, such a content system increases the cost of production of pig production, therefore, is not widespread. The exception is pedigree farms and reproducers, small tribal farms.
Leisure-free content is most common in large pig farms and industrial complexes. With this system, pigs are kept indoors all year round from birth to sale at a meat processing plant. The maintenance of all sex and age groups without a walk is due to the requirements of intensive industry management, and it is also the most economically profitable. Of course, there are also disadvantages. This leads to a weakening of the constitution of animals, reduces their general and specific resistance to the adverse effects of environmental factors. Productive and reproductive qualities are also deteriorating. Therefore, for the most tribally valuable animals (single and conditionally pregnant queens, boars-producers and repair young animals), they try to use free-range content.
Two ways of keeping pigs are also distinguished: group and individual. With the group method, one animal contains several animals at once, and with the individual method - only one.
With individual maintenance, the most optimal conditions are created for caring for animals, monitoring them, the risk of spreading diseases among the livestock is reduced, and fights between individual individuals are excluded. However, more maintenance personnel and material costs are required, therefore, the economic efficiency of production falls.
With the group method of keeping on the farm, the best conditions are created for the introduction of integrated production mechanization. At the same time, preventive measures against infectious and invasive diseases, as well as stresses among animals, are impeded.
Let us examine in more detail some of the technical means used for keeping pigs.
In order to reduce capital costs and increase pork production per 1 m² of area, as well as increase the capacity of the premises, single and multi-tier cell batteries are used in pig farming for keeping weaned pigs and fattening young animals. However, such maintenance makes it difficult to observe pigs and creates certain difficulties in moving them to other buildings and vehicles. To this end, special containers have been developed.
These technical facilities serve both for keeping and transporting animals. Such installations look like cages in appearance, but differ from them in that each cage-container, after completion of rearing and feeding, can be loaded with any animal into any vehicle, as well as installed on a container site and moved through general service points, for example, through distribution points feed, weighing and others.
Machines are individual and group. Group machines (Figure 45) are also used for keeping boars-producers, checked boars and probes - no more than 5 goals, single and conditionally pregnant queens - 5-12 goals each, pregnant queens - 10-15 goals, weaned piglets - 25-30 goals each. (but better for 10 - 12 goals.), Repair - up to 10 goals. and fattening young animals - 25-30 goals each., and also rejected pigs for fattening - 15-17 goals each. Especially breeding and aggressive boars-producers are kept strictly individually. Individual machines are used for the maintenance of breeding boars, lactating queens with pigs (Figure 46), single and conditionally pregnant sows.
The walls of the machines, in addition to the front with the feeder, are made of solid brick, reinforced concrete or wood, and the front wall is in the form of a metal grill (preferably steel) hanging over the feeder.
Manure channels are usually placed inside the machines on the opposite side of the feeder. The floors in the machines should be strong, non-slip, waterproof, preferably made of red brick laid on the edge, or of expanded clay concrete or composite materials.
In individual machines, floors can be continuous over the entire area, and in group machines they are made continuous only in the animal rest area (den), in the defecation zone - slotted from cast-iron gratings. In the case of group content, the partitions between adjacent machines in the lairary area are continuous, excluding the contact of animals from different machines, and in the defecation zone they are lattice-shaped or with a gap (lumen) below. When nursing sows with pigs are kept, bedding made from straw or sawdust is used.
Abroad there is a tethered content of pigs. However, such maintenance is disadvantageous when serving a large number of animals. In the practice of domestic pig farming, this method is not applied.
In addition to these premises, they provide points for collecting seeds and artificial insemination of pigs, points of forced slaughter, and on farms with a full production cycle and meat processing - slaughter and primary processing (or processing) of livestock products.
Regardless of any method or system of keeping pigs, the required microclimate parameters must be maintained indoors.
Pig breeding tests with answers
The correct answer is in bold:A)
A) from a physiological state
B) on age and live weight
IN) from physiological state and live weight
D) on age and live weight
A) deteriorates growth and development
B) meat and fat are getting worse
C) enzyme activity is deteriorating
D) productivity is deteriorating
A) reproductive capacity decreases
B) growth worsens
B) rickets, osteomalacia
D) productivity is deteriorating
A) phosphorus and calcium
D) strontium and lead
A) root crops, silage, food waste
B) tart and alfalfa
C) barley and wheat
D) haylage, straw, alfalfa
G) in K. units and digestible protein
D) does not increase
13) What do piglets with colostrum receive daily?
14) What is the volume of the stomach in newborns?
15) How much milk do piglets get per day from the uterus?
16) What temperature should be in the room for farrowing?
17) What is the duration of farrowing?
18) At what distance in the newborn is the umbilical cord cut?
19) At what age do piglets take away?
test No. 20) The amount of succulent feed for lactating queens for the winter period:
21) One of the adverse factors affecting piglets at weaning:
A) lowering the temperature
B) temperature increase
IN) feeding change
D) change in humidity
22) How many feed units should be contained in the daily ration of 60-day-old weanersage?
23) What should be the milkiness of the uterus when weaning repair young animals?
24) What do not pay attention to when selecting repair young animals?
25) At what age is the repair young stock examined again?
26) How much should pigs weigh by 9 months of age in breeding farms?
A) not less than 200 kg
B) no more than 100 kg
IN) not less than 120-130 kg
D) not less than 150-160 kg
27) How much to. Unit should be spent with live weight of repair young animals
28) The main feed for young animals:
A) brewer's yeast
29) How much feed should account for juicy feed in the diets of the repairyoung animals?
30test) How much coarse feed is fed to repair young animals?
31) With intensive fattening by 7-8 months. pigs reach mass:
32) What determines the profitability of pig farming?
A) content improvements
B) age at weaning
C) the content of unproductive pigs
D) all answers are incorrect
33) Which animal has a high precocity and good rates of payment for feedproducts?
34) How many periods does fattening include?
35) Which of the factors is not a consequence of castration?
B) high gain in live weight
IN) increase in reproductive ability
D) high lethal yield
36) When keeping pigs in large groups in one section - s / s increase:
B) remains the same
37) The machine is placed on:
38) Pigs are sent to slaughter after they reach live weight:
39) What is the s / s gain is most advantageous for intensive fattening pigs?
40 "test) At what age do bacon feedings end?
41) What is not taken into account when selecting pigs?
A) state of health
42) When do pigs get bonded?
A) in January - February
43) What is the scale of the exterior of pigs?
44) In uterus after receiving offspring from them take into account:
C) the number of piglets
45) How many indicators evaluate the offspring of boars after control fattening?
46) When closely breeding, productivity:
D) remains the same
47) Which of the methods of selecting pigs is widely used?
A) close mating
B) moderate mating
IN) distant sibling
D) all answers are incorrect
48) What survey is considered emergency?
A) that occurred during the accident
B) in which less than 6 piglets
C) in which less than 4 piglets
D) in which all the piglets were born dead
49) What does the animal receive after scoring?
A) serial number
No. 50) When selecting for the quality of offspring do not take into account:
Walking and walking ways of keeping pigs.
In pig breeding there are two ways of keeping pigs: free-range and free-range. Walking is divided into easel-walking and free-walking. In the easel-walking method, animals are kept in individual or group machines with walking on near-farm paved areas or grassed areas. They feed animals in the machines where the lairs for rest are located, or in separate sections of the building (canteens).
With the free-walking method, pigs are kept in group machines. Animals have free access to walking areas and entrance to the machines. To do this, in pigsties provide equipment for manholes in the longitudinal walls. Pigs are fed in machines, walkways, canteens or on walking grounds.
With the free-walking method, pigs are housed in different ways. In pavilion buildings, they are kept in machines (group or individual) on the floor or in multi-tiered cell batteries, or in stationary-mounted containers, in multi-span buildings - in floor machines in tiers, in multi-story buildings - in floor machines, in cell batteries or in movable containers.
The number of pigs includes breeding boars, inspectors, probes, sows - single, un seeded, pregnant, seeded, lactating, and queens with piglets. Among young animals, suckling pigs are distinguished (before weaning): weaning piglets at the age of 2 - 4 months, with early weaning - 26 - 45 days and up to 3 - 4 months of age, repair young animals - mumps and grubs from 4 to 9 - 11 months
To fattening pigs (fattening livestock) include: young animals aged 3 - 4 to 7 - 9 months and adult fattening pigs (tested uterus after weaning piglets, rejected main uterus and boars-producers).
Walking areas are equipped near the longitudinal walls of the pigsties and divided into sections, the sizes of which are determined taking into account the sizes of individual machines (Table 12.1), the number of pigs served by one pig or operator, and when kept in group machines, by the number of pigs in the group.
The size of the walking areas per head is: for boars-producers 10 m 2, sows 5 - 10, pigs-weaners 0.8, repair young 1.5 m 2. Walking grounds are covered with concrete and enclosed.
In the southern zones of the country, pigs walk throughout the year, and in the remaining zones only in the warm season. In winter, they are released for walks in fine weather.
In the summer, camps with light buildings, canopies, huts or camps are set up for keeping pigs (queens, weaning pigs and repair young animals)
The feeding front per head should be: for boars-producers 0.5 m, sows and adult pigs for fattening 0.4 - 0.45, repair and fattening young animals 0.3, piglets aged 2 - 4 months 0.2 m .