But what to do if, nevertheless, the conflict could not be avoided and the snake attacked? First, it’s important not to give in to the excitement and to maintain maximum calm. Panic accelerates the heartbeat and blood flow, and, consequently, the speed of spread of poison throughout the body. To begin with, to slow down the circulation of blood and lymph, take a horizontal position and keep, as far as possible, the stillness of the bitten place.
Most often, the bite falls either on the forearm or in the lower leg. In this case, it is recommended to fix the arm on the bandage, as is done with the application of gypsum, and tie the bitten leg to a healthy leg, in order to prevent unnecessary muscle contractions that accelerate blood flow. Next, you need to keep calm, examine the place of the bite. It often happens that the snake fails to accurately calculate the moment of release of the poison and it remains on clothing or on the skin. In this case, you need to take off your clothes and quickly rinse the skin with water at the site of the bite so that the poison does not absorb into the scratch. If a wound remains on the skin, you need to carefully examine it. The bites of poisonous and non-toxic snakes vary. A non-venomous snake leaves just two parallel thin scratches or two rows of dots - teeth marks. In the bite of a poisonous snake at the end of each scratch or series of points there is a puncture from the poisonous tooth - the place where she injected the poison. And sometimes - it's just two punctures without any scratches. Additional evidence of snake venom will be signs of snake venom poisoning: nausea, dizziness, double vision, shortness of breath, drowsiness, sweating, vomiting and fainting, the skin at the wound site will turn red, swell and hurt.
For further competent actions, in particular, the choice of the right serum by doctors, it is very good if you have time to consider the submarine and be able to describe it. In our Russian forests, mountains and swamps, we most often have to deal with vipers ordinary (vipera berus), which are confused with peaceful and non-poisonous snakes.
In a viper, unlike a snake, a triangular head expanding to the back of the head and a short snub-nosed snout are a characteristic feature of all poisonous snakes. The pupil of the viper is predatory - vertical, while the pupil is rounded. The tail of the viper is characterized by a sharp marked narrowing to the tip. The tail is elongated and smoothly disappears. Many types of snakes on the back of their heads have a bright orange or yellow necklace - the main feature by which it is easily distinguished from a viper. In addition to the viper, in the territory of the former CIS, namely in the Caucasus and in the south of Central Asia, you can meet two more dangerous snakes, which are more correctly called aspids - it is gyurza and efa (desert viper).
So - the snake has bitten! If punctures are found in the wound, you need to act immediately. In the first 5-10 minutes, you can try to squeeze out and suck out the poison. If everything is done quickly and competently, this may work. Although many believe that this is useless because of a delay over time due to shock and stupor in the first few minutes after a bite. But if you don’t panic, you can do everything. You should know that the poisonous tooth of the snake is 1-2 cm long, and if the bite took place in full, the injection site itself is quite deep under the skin, and the tissues at the puncture site quickly close due to its small size.
How to suck venom properly if a snake has bitten
That is, to squeeze out the poison, you need to make a wide girth of the skin around the bite and try to squeeze the blood out of the formed fold, taking into account just such a depth of the poison. If everything worked out, after squeezing the wound slightly open, and here you can already try to suck out the poison. In this case, do not forget to spit thoroughly, and after the procedure, rinse your mouth for 15 minutes. Doctors strongly advise against sucking out poison if there is no certainty that there are no wounds, injuries, or other open spaces in the oral cavity through which the poison can enter the bloodstream. If this circumstance is not taken into account, it will be necessary to save not only the victim, but also the rescuer, and the affairs of the latter will be much worse due to the fact that the poison enters the body in the head area. Therefore, in order not to increase the risk of the situation, there is an option to suck out the poison by putting an ordinary jar in place of the bite and keeping it for about a minute.
What to do when a snake bites
- calm and slow down a person (you can even give valerian or sleeping pills),
- lay him on his back and immobilize, especially, the place of the bite,
- suck out the poison or put the jar in the place of the bite (it makes sense in the first 10 minutes),
- give a diuretic or drink a lot,
- deliver to a medical institution within 3-5 hours in a supine position,
- if it is not possible to independently introduce the serum "Anti-Viper" after taking prednisolone,
- even if a person has successfully recovered after a bite of a viper without an antidote, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible to remove toxins from the body, in order to avoid relapses in the future.
What can not be done with a bite
- apply tight braids and dressings,
- give exciting drinks: coffee, tea, alcohol,
- make incisions and incisions at the site of the bite,
- Cauterize the wound with boiling oil, acids and alkalis.
Symptoms and clinical presentation
A snakebite has certain symptoms, regardless of what species the reptile belongs to. Any snakebite has a standard clinical picture. In snake venom there are substances that have similar functions and effects:
- hemolysin - a substance that can provoke the breakdown of blood cells,
- cholinesterase is a special enzyme that can disrupt neuromuscular transmission and function,
- neurotoxin - a component that affects all nerve tissues and structures,
- cardiotoxin is extremely dangerous, it can have a toxic effect on the cardiovascular system.
In addition to the above toxins, in snake venom there are a huge number of various components that instantly and mercilessly destroy human tissues, cells and organs.
You need to know that the snake bite has different symptoms.
- bite marks, which have a characteristic feature - two wounds of a triangular shape, located on the same strip, have a size of about three millimeters,
- severe burning, pain, redness and swelling at the site of the lesion,
- blood discharge
- the skin is covered with blisters, acquires a bluish tint.
- severe diarrhea with blood,
- bloody, frequent and profuse vomiting,
- dizziness, headaches,
- pain in the joints, muscles,
- severe weakness
- dehydration of the human body,
- numerous hemorrhages on the skin,
- renal and liver failure progresses,
- high body temperature.
Neurological disorders are as follows:
- severe headaches
- weakness, drowsiness, apathy and lethargy,
- general malaise
- impaired vision
- trouble swallowing
- dizziness, blurred consciousness,
- the concentration of attention and vision is disturbed,
- the eyelids go down
- the face becomes skewed
- the body is numb at the site of the bite.
Violation of the full activity of the cardiovascular system:
- painful cramps in the heart and chest,
- labored breathing,
- tachycardia develops (heart palpitations).
If such symptoms are found, the victim should receive medical attention. All actions should be aimed at urgent removal of poison from the site of the lesion.
Snake venom poisoning
The degree, severity and form of snake venom poisoning depends on many factors that must be considered:
- the number of bites on the victim’s body,
- age, variety, reptile size,
- total amount of poison in the wound,
- the sensitivity of the victim to the components of toxic toxins,
- general health of a person, his weight, age and other information,
- location, size and depth of the wound.
The danger of attack of various types of snakes
Quite often, bites of poisonous snakes cause death. The main danger is that an extensive purulent wound is formed at the site of the lesion. The attack of some species of snakes ends in lightning death.
The most dangerous representative of reptiles is considered Royal Asp. Clinical picture: minor pain, which is replaced by numbness of the whole body and limbs, muscle paralysis. If you do not get to a medical institution in a timely manner, a quick fatal outcome occurs.
Next, consider the bites of the most common types of snakes.
Typical symptomatic manifestations may be the following: severe pain, which is accompanied by extensive red blood cell hemolysis and the development of jaundice / liver failure. Significantly worsens the well-being of the affected person. Emergency hospitalization is required to avoid death.
Rattlesnake bite, pithead
The bites of explosive representatives are characterized by the following main symptoms: burning and terrible pain, instant swelling, the formation of blisters and blood spills, the formation of necrotic wounds. Then the body temperature rises, general intoxication and fever begin, nausea and severe vomiting are present. Untimely provision of medical care threatens life-threatening internal bleeding from the digestive tract.
A rattlesnake whose bite can be fatal is one of the most dangerous snakes on Earth.
The bite of a viper or any other snake is extremely dangerous for health and life, so you need to be able to provide assistance in such emergency cases. The viper bite requires special attention, the same as in the case of the bite of another dangerous poisonous snake. The basic rule is not to panic! Effective help is possible if your actions are focused and consistent.
The following help algorithm must be followed:
- Try to calm the victim, put on a flat surface to reduce blood flow and absorption of poison.
- If there are any decorations, remove them, as in case of severe swelling, additional problems may arise.
- Try to fix the bite in one position and make it stationary using a special tire.
- Then it is necessary to suck out the poison. If possible, you can use a rubber bulb or a special suction. However, in their absence, such manipulation is carried out by the mouth, if there are no various lesions on the mucous membrane.
- You can make small cuts near the wound.
- Next, you need to apply a bandage to squeeze the affected area of the body, but the arteries are required to fully function.
- Provide the affected person with plenty of water to reduce the presence of toxins and poisons in the blood.
- With shock and a serious complication of the situation, an indirect heart massage and artificial respiration from mouth to mouth will be required.
In addition to this, you should remember the actions that are prohibited after a bite:
- drinking alcohol
- physical activity and activity,
- setting a tourniquet on the victim’s limbs,
- the product of linear incisions in the place of edema,
- warm and hot compresses
- a lot of ice.
Performing such manipulations is fraught not only with serious consequences and complications, but also fatal. Therefore, it is very important to provide the patient with the correct and effective first aid, and then hospitalize the bitten as soon as possible.
Examination of the patient
In parallel with treatment, a comprehensive examination of the patient is necessary. Required:
- general blood analysis,
- biochemical indicators
- general urine analysis,
- analysis of liver enzymes.
Prevention from snake bites, especially poisonous ones, does not exist. But there are certain rules for visiting places where poisonous reptiles can be: it is advisable to wear trousers and high boots / boots. In addition to such measures, you need to be extremely careful, careful and careful to prevent the attack of the snake.
Snakes are immune to their own poison.
Despite the sometimes unpredictable behavior, snakes have a rather convenient feature for survival - most of them have innate immunity to their own poisons. It is understandable: if they hadn’t of such a quality, most snakes would have died at a very young age, accidentally biting themselves while hunting. Perhaps this is why nature has taken care of a special substance in the blood of the same vipers that can repel external toxins.
However, not all types of reptiles possess such natural protection. It is known that rattlesnakes have lost this very convenient feature, which has led to the fact that this type of snake tries not to use poisonous teeth in fights with relatives.
Despite the formidable appearance, snakes can easily fall in battle with their own kind
In addition, most snakes do not have any protection from the poisons produced by their congeners. So, it is known that a small but very poisonous snake efa can kill a gyurza with its poison, and the cobra already mentioned above can easily deal with any of its opponents with the help of a paralyzing poison.
However, the main snake feature - poisonous teeth, although a formidable weapon, is at the same time a rather vulnerable spot for the animal. Firstly, such teeth break easily, and secondly, with an annual molt, snakes lose their teeth along with old skin!
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What are the bites of poisonous snakes?
Going with your child to nature, learn what kinds of snakes live in your area. Poisonous snakes usually have a dark color and are distinguished by vertical pupils (popularly called the cat's eye). In the spring, the mating season begins, at which time the aggression of snakes becomes more pronounced, and the poison is more toxic.
If a snake attacked you or a child, then classic intoxication symptoms are often observed: dizziness, weakness, nausea, and vomiting. When bitten by a poisonous snake, the body's reaction depends on the type of poison that it has released.
There are two main types of snake venom:
- paralyzing - this poison stops neuromuscular transmission, leads to complete paralysis and death of the victim,
- hemovasotoxic - This poison disrupts the functioning of blood vessels, causes spasms, increases permeability and leads to edema.
The bite of a poisonous snake is accompanied by such symptoms:
- at the place of the bite two round dots appear - these are traces of jokes by poisonous teeth,
- redness, swelling, burning and pain in the wound,
- after 20-40 minutes, the patient develops intoxication syndrome: dizziness, nausea with vomiting, fever.
What myths and misconceptions exist?
Many sources, including our beloved feature films, tell us that after a snakebite, we need to place a tourniquet in a row order and try to suck out the poison from the wound. These points are even spelled out in school textbooks on life safety (basics of life safety).
In some sources, it is attached to make incisions with a knife next to the points that remained after the bite of the teeth of a creeping reptile.
There are still such absurd tips as giving the victim a glass of vodka, which will act as an anesthetic. Or, for example, cauterize bite wounds with matches.
Naturally, all the above actions are erroneous, they can not be applied in practice, so as not to further aggravate the situation.
Learning to provide proper first aid for a snakebite!
What is the essence of emergency care in the first minutes after a bite of a poisonous snake?
Let's deal in order and in detail on this important issue.
- A person bitten by a snake should be immediately put down, this is necessary so that blood circulation slows down in the body - this action will significantly slow down the process of the spread of poison throughout the body.
- Call an ambulance immediately! Do not hesitate with this question, since there is less and less time left to save each minute, about 1 hour. And the ambulance still needs to be reached!
- It is important to ensure that the limb of a person who suffered from a snakebite remains motionless until the ambulance arrives. To achieve this, a tire made of improvised materials will help: an ordinary scarf and sticks.
- Give the affected person allergy pills! Such medicines as tavegil, suprastin or diphenhydramine are suitable. Situations are different, so when hiking in woodlands, always bring along a first-aid kit with the necessary medicines for first aid!
- To reduce the concentration of toxins in the body, you need a person to drink a lot of fluids - this should be ordinary, simple drinking water. We do not get carried away and give the victim water to drink gradually, since there will be no benefit from a large amount of liquid drunk at a time.
First aid for a child with a snakebite
The child was bitten by a snake, what to do, how to help with a bite of a poisonous snake?
Bites of vipers and poisonous snakes of other species represent a very serious danger to the life of a child.
When parents take their children with them for a picnic or for a walk in the forest, they often have no idea what to do and how to help their baby if he is bitten by a snake.
First aid for a bite
If a child was bitten by a poisonous snake, a parent or other adult nearby should urgently call an ambulance, and then examine the wound and immediately provide first aid to the baby.
When bitten by a poisonous snake, the quickest possible first aid plays a decisive role in saving lives.
Before the arrival of the medical staff you called, you must do the following:
Reassure the baby. The first thing to do is seat or lay the baby and try to calm the frightened baby. Snake venom after a bite enters the bloodstream, strong feelings and excessive motor activity will enhance circulation, and this will accelerate the spread of poison throughout the body.
Give a cure for allergies. Before the ambulance arrives, it is necessary to give the victim antiallergic drugs!
Treat the wound. Rinse the bite site with clean water and apply a thin, sterile dressing.
Immobilize the limbs. Snakes tend to bite in a leg or arm. A limb that has suffered from a bite must be fixed with a bandage or splint, which will impede movement.
Give water regularly. Provide your child with a plentiful drink, this is necessary to reduce the concentration of poison and remove it from the body.
Before you go on vacation with your child to the forest zone, it is important to think carefully about all the details in order to eliminate the threat of a snake bite: study the area, choose the right shoes and clothes, give a small briefing with the child on how to behave and what to do when in contact with the snake.
Preparation for your family vacation with children, must include such items:
- The right choice of clothes. Parents should take with them children's things that will protect the baby in the forest, these are: high rubber boots, a windbreaker or sweater with a long sleeve, a cap or scarf.
- Learning about poisonous snakes. Before the trip, parents must tell their children information on how to behave when meeting with snakes. The child does not need to panic and scream, you can not run and wave his arms. Explain that when he sees the snake, the best option is to just stop and freeze.
- Constant monitoring of the baby in the forest. In no case do not leave a child alone, even for a short period of time, parents should always be vigilant and keep their child in sight.
What can not be done with a snakebite
Often, very serious mistakes are made if you want to help, which can lead to sad consequences.
If the assistance provided was initially incorrect, then it will be very difficult for doctors to recover a person.
What can not be done with first aid:
No tight tourniquet! You can not apply a strong tourniquet to the site of the bite or above it - this will cause necrosis, tissue death and blood poisoning, can lead to irreversible consequences and amputation of the limb. Putting an ice bite in place will produce the exact same sad effect.
Cauterize a wound by means of matches, pasted up metal or coal. - this will only add unnecessary pain and suffering to the patient, but will not bring benefits, the snake venom does not collapse under the influence of high temperatures.
You can not cut the bite site - this will increase pain shock and can provoke additional infection of the wound.
In no case should you drink alcohol as an antiseptic or to relieve stress - snake venom when interacting with alcohol can provoke hemorrhage.
You can’t move a lot and make extra movements. You must immediately lie down and stop moving. Excessive motor activity or suction of the poison will provoke a more rapid movement of toxins throughout the body.
Treating a wound from snake teeth with alcohol will increase the rate of absorption of snake venom. It is also worth forgetting about hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate. Just leave the wounds alone until the ambulance arrives.
Venom snake antidote
The antidote serum from the bite of an ordinary viper, which is used by a doctor, is made from horse blood.
For children, in order to neutralize the effect of snake venom, the same dosage of the immune preparation is necessary as for an adult. The thing is that when they give an antidote, they look at the amount of poison in the blood, and it is the same, because a reptile with a bite does not pay attention to age, gender and height.
If you know that it will be quite problematic for you to get to the first-aid post, then before such a long trip take care to buy a life-saving immune serum for yourself. In the case of a snake bite, the serum will help neutralize the poison, this will give you the necessary reserve of time to get to the hospital.
Going on a forest trip, take a first-aid kit with a syringe and an ampoule with serum. If necessary, you can save the life of a loved one or your own.
Treatment in a hospital with a snakebite
Treatment in a hospital for a snakebite is as follows:
The first thing that will be done is that the patient will be injected with multivalent immune serum. The antidote is administered according to a specially calculated scheme, so you need to remember the time at which the snake bit you.
Also, the victim of a snake bite will treat and anesthetize the wounds, and make an injection against tetanus.
Then, general and advanced analyzes are taken. The patient undergoes an ECG. Depending on these indicators, further treatment is prescribed.
Is it possible to treat a snake bite at home with folk remedies?
Home treatment after a snakebite is unacceptable!
No herbs and lotions will help here! Snake venom is not worth joking!
Contact a hospital immediately for help. And even after discharge, be attentive to your health, if something starts to bother, go to the clinic!
Poisonous snakes of Russia
Russia is a huge country, its flora and fauna are extremely diverse and rich. This applies to snakes, many of which are poisonous and pose a danger to humans.
Let's see what poisonous snakes do not live in Russia, how they look and where they live. This is necessary so that while relaxing in nature you can protect yourself and avoid the bite of a poisonous snake.
This snake is the most common - you can find a reptile in almost any corner of Russia. The favorite habitats of the common viper are swamps, riverbanks, lakes, streams, and it can also be found in mixed forests and fields. In late spring, this snake is most active.
The length of an adult is, on average, about 60 centimeters. The color of the snake varies from red-brown to gray, and in the North you can find a black viper. A distinctive zigzag line runs along the ridge of this reptile.
The viper is a shy snake, it attacks and bites only in case of self-defense, when it was accidentally disturbed.
The bite of an ordinary viper is considered quite dangerous for a person, however, it rarely leads to death. In most cases, those bitten do not experience any symptoms at all, or they feel burning pain at the site of the bite. Also, hemorrhagic edema - redness and swelling can develop near the wound.
In rare cases, after a viper bite, the following symptoms are observed: dizziness, pallor of the skin, tachycardia, chills, increased sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
The consequences of a bite of this snake, in the vast majority of cases, pass after 2-4 days.
The lifestyle and consequences of the bite of this snake are practically no different from the common viper.
The differences between these reptiles are only in color, in the steppe viper it is gray-brown in color with a dark stripe along the ridge and fuzzy side spots. And the habitat - this snake prefers to settle in the steppe, but you can also find it in the forests.
Cases of the bite of this snake are not fatal. True, without timely medical assistance, the affected person will have serious health consequences.
In many ways, this snake is close to the steppe viper. It is distinguished by a special orange-yellow or red-brick color. In Russia, it is mainly found in the Krasnodar Territory. Also lives on wooded slopes, high in the mountains.
The Caucasian viper, like other vipers, is not the first to attack. The consequences of her bite are similar to an ordinary viper.
The size of this snake is about 70 centimeters. In Russia, the habitat of the muzzle is quite extensive - it is found in the southern part of the Volga region, southeastern regions of Siberia and still lives in the Far East. Shchitomordnik likes semi-deserts and marshy places.
These snakes do not show particular aggressiveness, except in those cases when she does not have the opportunity to retreat. If the snake is ready to attack, then the tip of the tail begins to vibrate.
The bite is very painful, but not fatal.
In the event of a snakebite, you should immediately seek help from a hospital. With timely medical care, your life will be saved. Full recovery in the hospital usually occurs after 7-10 days.
Gyurza is one of the largest and most dangerous snakes, its length can reach from 1.5 to 2 meters. It lives in the North Caucasus, mainly in Dagestan.
Gyurza is not aggressive by nature, but rather bold, if you approach her dangerously close, she attacks with lightning speed, makes jumps that are equal to the length of her body. It hunts at any time of the day, is quite nimble and perfectly climbs trees.
Therefore, when biting this snake, emergency medical care is needed, the sooner a special antidote is introduced, the higher the victim's chances of saving his life.
To prevent the snake from biting, you must follow certain precautions.
Prevention from snake bites is quite simple and consists of several simple rules for competent behavior in nature:
- In nature, you do not need to walk barefoot. The ideal footwear for places where you can find poisonous snakes are high boots.
- If you met a snake, then you do not need to touch it and provoke retaliatory aggression against you.
- Especially be careful and be vigilant in thickets of thick grass, overgrown pits, reeds.
- If it so happens that you find yourself in nature in the dark, then try to go everywhere with a flashlight - many snakes are especially violent in warm summer nights.
- Remember, in places where there are a large number of rodents, you can naturally meet snakes - this is all because rodents are their main source of nutrition.
- Resting in the forest, in no case do you need to triple for the night near rotten stumps or old hollow trees - snakes can live in them.
- If you find a snake in your things or close to yourself, then you do not need to make sudden movements, slowly move away from the snake to the far away, the reptile will creep away after a while.
Snake Bite Prevention - Memo
When walking in the forest or in nature, be careful and prudent, because there is a possibility that you can become a victim of an attack of poisonous snakes!
In any case, prevention from snakebites is the surest and best remedy.
- when going to the forest or to nature, don’t wear things that fit your body,
- put on high shoes and tuck pants into it. It may not be very beautiful, but believe me - this style of clothing is needed for your safety!
- be sure to bring a first aid kit and a supply of clean water,
- Have a serious discussion with your children about forest safety. Teach them how to behave when meeting snakes or poisonous insects,
- walk cautiously in the forest, push the tall grass and bushes over with a stick. Do not lose sight of children,
- if you saw a snake, then do not scare it with screams and leave it immediately. Remember! She will never attack you first!
Walking in the woods is our unity with nature, a great option for relaxing with children, just so that your family vacation in nature does not overshadow, you need to prepare well for it.
Be careful, take care of yourself and your children!
What can not be done
REMEMBER.Wounds should not be cut (cauterized). Do not suck off the contents of the wound. Do not apply a tourniquet. Wait for the doctor to arrive.
In extreme cases, if the victim is in the forest, and help wait more than two hours, the contents of the wound can be sucked off with a rubber bulb for 30-60 minutes.
What not to do