biennial or summer
prefers moderate hydration
in the middle lane does not winter
prefers garden soil
summer (July-August), end of summer - autumn (August-October)
high (above 100 cm), medium (50-100 cm)
Cosmos, Cosmea. One and perennial herbaceous plants, often tall. The leaves are opposite, twice pinnately dissected into narrow, linear to filiform lobes.
Inflorescences are multifloral baskets on bare peduncles, solitary or collected in loose, corymbose panicles. The color is purple, pink, dark red, white or golden yellow. It blooms from mid-June to September.
Cosmea twice-feathered (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Herbaceous annual 80-150 cm tall, large inflorescences 7-10 cm in diameter, solitary or collected in a rare shield. Marginal flowers are white, pink, red or purple, arranged in one or more rows, tubular - small, yellow, form a small disk. It blooms profusely from mid-June to September.
Popular varieties of Cosmea duosififolia:
‘Dazzlef - regional flowers raspberry,
‘Purity’ - the marginal flowers are white,
‘Radiance’ - the marginal flowers are pink, darker at the base.
The plant is unpretentious in culture, care consists in regular watering and top dressing. Cosmea is a light-loving plant, undemanding to soil conditions. On poor soils, it is fed once every 3-4 weeks, on rich soils - twice a season, with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer. If possible, wilted inflorescences are removed to more actively form new buds.
Cosmea belongs to the family Asteraceae. In our climatic conditions, these are annual plants. In their natural conditions, many species are perennial. In the natural environment, the species is found in many regions of the world - in North and Central America, Asia, the Caribbean. These are flowers with soft, filiform, green and cirrus leaves resembling dill. They have very low requirements for soil, cultivation and care, they bloom beautifully all summer.
In Europe, this species came from America in the late 18th century. However, only after a hundred years the cosmea fell in love and it began to expand throughout the continent.
The name of the plant comes from the Greek word "kosmos", which means order, decoration.
Some say that cosmea owes its name to its height: it reaches 1.5 m. Others believe that the missionaries gave the name to the plant, the center of which resembles the Sun, surrounded by petals similar to planets. It is believed that the origin of the name is inexplicable, as inexplicable cosmos.
Cosmea grows up to 100-150 cm, has a straight, branched crown. The leaves are small, cirrus, light green. Flowers are collected in large baskets with a diameter of about 9 cm. The flowers vary in structure, color, depending on the species and variety, there are white, pink, purple, bright red, yellow. The plant blooms profusely from July to October. The fruit is the seeds.
In the garden, the cosmea begins to grow when the last spring frosts pass. Even without care, it grows and blooms from July until the first frost. The flower looks simple enough, but perfectly decorates flower beds and rabatki.
Cosmea Flower Pictures
Double-edged cosmea (Bipinnatus) is an annual plant. It grows to 1-1.5 meters in height, grows powerfully and on the tops of numerous stems delicate flowers with a diameter of 5-9 cm are formed.The height depends very much on the position - in slightly shaded positions the plant cannot grow up to 1.5 meters.
As a rule, the “petals” (or reed flowers) are pink or purple, and the middle (tubular flowers) is yellow. Cirrus leaves give lightness to the plant. Varieties of this species are more compact than typical samples of other species.
Grades grow to 60-90 cm:
- Bonbon series - terry kosmey,
- Cup Cakes
Undersized varieties of cosmea:
- Sonata (Sonata) - white, pink, carmine, up to 45 cm high, "Sonata White" - has pure white flowers, 45 cm high,
- Versailles (Versailles) - growth to 30 cm,
- Cosmini (Cosmini) - dwarf (30 cm).
It is worth recommending the old variety - Purity with pure white large flowers that look exceptionally delicate against the background of delicate green leaves.
For lovers of bright, cheerful colors, good varieties:
- Picotee variety - tall cosmei with bright colors with a darker border on the edge of the petals,
- Sensation (Sensation) - forms large flowers (diameter 9 cm).
Flowers of both varieties are large and very decorative.
Other interesting varieties
|Name and Description of Cosmea Variety||A photo|
|Seashells or Sea Shells|
It has interesting reed colors of pink, white, carmine red, raspberry flowers. Plants planted against a background of green shrubs, perfectly revitalize the composition of the rabatka. Reach a height of 90 cm.
|Candy Stripe (Candy Stripe)|
Plants grow up to 90 cm, bloom with white flowers with fuzzy dark red transverse patterns or spots.
Pale pink flowers with a dark center. Height - 90cm.
|Piper Red (Pied Piper Red)|
Dark burgundy flowers.
There is also a species of cosmea with yellow and orange flowers - C. sulphureus. It reaches a height of half a meter. Cultivated in the same way as the previous view. It blooms relatively late - flowers appear in late July, August. Flower shoots grow above a group of leaves. The height of the plant is on average 70-80 cm. In good conditions, grows higher. Planting several seedlings nearby gives the impression of a large bush.
The species has smaller but numerous flowers to compensate for this feature. This is a more heat-loving species, achieves better results in a protected place.
Chocolate (black, blood red)
The perennial blood red Kosmei (C. atrosanguineus), also called chocolate and black, is distinguished by baskets of chocolate-colored inflorescences and a smell of about 3 cm in diameter. The plant grows to 35 cm, grows weakly, and forms lanceolate leaves.
A popular variety with tuberous roots is Chocamocha. Since the variety has tubers, they can be dug up and, in addition to seeds, stored in a frost-free room.
Sowing cosmea seeds
Double-edged and sulfur-yellow kosmei are grown from seeds. Seeds can be purchased or harvested from plants growing in the garden. Cosmeas grown from seeds collected on their own are unlike the mother plant. Harvested seeds retain viability for 2-3 years.
- cosmea seeds are sown in open ground at the end of April,
- planting cosmea seeds for seedlings is carried out at home 3 weeks before planting in open ground - in early April.
Seeds germinate well after 4-10 days.
Cosmea grows very quickly from seeds, so it can be sown late, even in late spring, which makes the flower extremely useful in the garden.
A photo. Young seedling
The distance between two seedlings should be 40 × 50 cm. The nutrition area per plant is about 0.5 square meters so that the flowers do not strangle each other.
If seedlings in the soil have sprouted too tightly, they should be thinned out (the optimal distance between plants is 40 cm).
The bifold species is scattered independently easily enough, sulfur-yellow - bad.
Attention! Cosmea twice-cirrus grows rapidly and rapidly occupies the surrounding area, then it is difficult to eradicate. It is enough to sow the plant once and it will quickly spread by self-sowing.
The long-term cosmea “Chocamocha” creates tuberous roots; it has the same requirements as dahlias, but is difficult to store in winter.
High varieties should be grown from seedlings so that flowering begins earlier. Young plants with unbranched stems tolerate transplanting well.
Requirements for the place of cultivation
Position: all species are planted in the sunniest places, protected from the wind. Otherwise, the wind will break rather thin, long stems. Some gardeners provide tall plants with special supports, thanks to which the stems do not succumb to the destructive force of the wind.
Plants have enough soil with medium fertility:
- Optimum soil - light, permeable, relatively low in moisture, not very rich in nutrients.
- On fertile soils, cosmei grow splendidly, but flowering begins later, with fewer flowers.
- It can grow on sandy soils, in areas near apartment buildings.
- Optimum soil pH: 6.0-8.5.
- Soil moisture: fairly moderate watering - stagnation of water harms the roots. Plants tolerate long periods without rains.
Diseases and Pests
Cosmei rarely get sick. Sometimes they are destroyed by snails, aphids. To prevent access of snails and slugs, it is worth mulching the soil around the plant with chipped egg shells. Aphids are destroyed with a soap solution or special aphid insecticides.
When the cosmea grows, it may need support. Twice-feathery species is relatively resistant to diseases and pests, but is sensitive to frost. The plant is not threatened by fungal diseases.
In landscape design
Cosmei flourishes magnificently with majestic, flat, open, colorful baskets. Both leaves and flowers are a decorative addition to summer, rural bouquets.
These are probably the highest annual flowers - they reach a height of 1.5 meters. Due to its height, kosmey is an ideal background for a lower discount, especially with the opposite shape and color of flowers. It goes well with other colors associated with rural gardens, for example:
Especially beautiful plants look in the role of a background for smaller monophonic plants. Then the lower belt is monophonic, and the upper one shimmers with different colors.
You need to choose the right place to plant, because cosmea can interfere with the growth of other plants, especially if you plant them too close, in a small area. It tends to spontaneously spread.
Cosmey can fill the empty space between the beds or create from them seasonal informal hedges that cover the unattractive parts of the garden.
A flower requires a lot of space, looks better from a distance. Usually planted and grows, creating large clusters of plants of different colors. The free nature of the rabatka fits, it looks beautiful on the lawn, flower garden, flowerbed surrounded by a lawn, planted with a narrow strip along the fence.
There are many varieties with beautiful, drought-resistant flowers - simple and double, one and two-tone.
Low-growing and dwarf varieties with a dense crown are recommended for:
- Landing along the tracks
- rocky gardens.
High varieties can be planted near the walls of houses, to close uninteresting hedges with them.
The combination of several varieties of cosmea planted over a larger area gives the composition an unusual charm. It gives the impression of a meadow, which will be an interesting idea for garden lovers with an informal view.
The plant can be planted in large groups in arid, undeveloped and desert corners of the garden. Bright flowers attract insects that collect nectar in the yellow centers of inflorescences. Sparrows and Carduelis feed on cosmea seeds.
Low-growing varieties can be grown in pots.
Cosmea perfectly performs the role of a cut flower - it can stand up to a week in a vase.
Cosmea flower propagation
Cosmos twice-feathery is easily propagated by seeds - they are sown in the ground in early spring. To speed up flowering can be grown through seedlings. True, this method is rarely used (landing in this case is carried out at the end of March - April). Seeds are large, seedlings grow rapidly, and if necessary, they can be easily transplanted to a new place. Cosmos germinates 5-14 days after planting seeds in the ground. Flowering is quite long: it begins in July and lasts until frost.
- The name of the widespread garden annual from the Astrov family, which is often called Cosmos, Beauty. His homeland is Mexico, Brazil and all of central America. Plant this sunny and spectacular beauty at your place, your garden will be transformed, it will become bright and elegant. With proper care, the cosmea will thank with magnificent magnificent flowering.
Cosmea, or Cosmos flower
Previously, this plant was not mistaken for a flower, but thanks to the work of breeders, new varieties of cosmea have been bred, which now adorn our gardens and delight us with their bright and delicate flowers almost all summer. The fruit is an elongated achene without crest.
These are mainly the two most popular types.
Cosmos bifinnate (C. bipinnatus),
Cosmos sulfur-yellow (C. sulphureus).
Cosmea of the first species / h2 is a plant 60-120 cm high. It has a strongly branched stem densely covered with openwork threadlike leaves, and large (12 cm in diameter) white, pink, dark cherry flowers, very similar to the well-known chamomile.
There are very interesting varieties of cosmea twice-cirrus:
‘Sea Shell’ with flowers folded into a tube around the edge,
‘Sensation Mixed’ with pink, white, red flowers,
‘Candy Stripe’ with white and red colors.
Cosmea sulfur yellow
- It is a stunted (40-70 cm) and heat-loving plant. It has wider leaves, and the flowers themselves are painted in different warm colors of yellow, bright orange and red. They bloom a little later (in the month of July) than the flowers of the cosmea are double-pinnate.
Flower lovers are well aware of cosmic varieties with an orange color / h2:
‘Sunset’ - semi-double,
‘Klondyke’ - terry,
‘Sunny Gold’ - dwarf.
Cosmea or Cosmos Flowers
How to care for the beautiful cosmea? / H2
Beauty Cosmea is thermophilic and loves a sunny location. Even in a light shade, its stems are stretched, more leaves grow on them, but much less fasten buds. Cosmea flowers are cold-resistant and able to bloom until the first frost.
Water the plant
necessary only when the earth dries up and at the beginning of active growth. Fertilizers are not so important. For example, top dressing with a high nitrogen content can only do much harm - the plant will stretch and it will be bad to tie the seeds.
Cosmea is resistant to many diseases and pests.
In wet summers, it can suffer from snails and slugs. To combat them, you can arrange traps, collect manually or use chemicals that are sold in a sufficient assortment in specialized stores.
Withered flowers should be removed in a timely manner in order to maintain decorativeness, extend overall flowering and rid the flower garden of self-sowing next year. Tall single specimens are tied to a strong support, so as not to break. In addition, the bushes can be trimmed and formed in the form of a ball, pyramid, cube.
In the autumn, after the first frosts, the stems are cut and harvested in compost. The roots rot over the winter and turn into an excellent fertilizer.
Cosmea: growing from seeds Cosmea can be grown by seed and seedlings. It is better to buy fresh seeds at the end of winter, in the future you can use your own. Sow in the flower garden in the spring (in April-May) in deeply cultivated land. Traditionally, the seeds are lightly pressed to the soil, watered and sprinkled with a small amount of earth. In warm weather, seedlings will appear after 1-2 weeks. As soon as the seedlings reach 5-10 cm, thin them, remove weak ones, and leave the distance between the specimens up to 40 cm, given the height of the variety. The tops of plants, reaching 40-50 cm, it is desirable to pinch. This procedure will lead to an increase in bushiness and the appearance of numerous new buds.
If you decide to grow a cosmea flower from seedlings, do not buy very elongated and poorly branched plants. Seedlings should be compact with a well-developed root system. Cosmea grown in room conditions will delight you with flowers much earlier.
Using cosmea in the garden.
A solar flowerbed for a beautiful woman is an ideal place in any garden. Cosmea flowers are suitable for filling voids in flower beds where perennials are planted: panicled phlox (Ph. Paniculata), monarda (Monarda). It looks great in plantings with other annual plants: sticky prickly (C. spinosa), verbena (V. bonariensis). It is harmoniously combined with flowers of a similar color: black shavers ((Tagetes), calendula (Calendula), sunflower (H. annuus), round-leaved titonia (T. rotundifolia), as well as with perennial gelenium (Helenium) and hairy rudibia (R. hirta). Cosmea is also good as background landings along fences and fences.
In addition, cosmea can be grown in container containers on the balcony. To do this, it is necessary to provide the flower with sufficient watering and the necessary fertilizing. This cosmic flower is beautiful in bouquets, the main thing is to put a little sugar in a flower pot, it is able to extend the life of flowers for 3-4 days.
Cosmea: a bit of history and a botanical description
Cosmea or cosmos(Cósmos) - Asteraceae plant. At first glance, you can notice its great resemblance to chamomile. However, a careful study shows that these flowers are completely different from each other. Cosmea is distinguished by bright and saturated shades, long petals and a mass of various varieties. It can be described by the following characteristics:
- the stem is thin and straight, in height it can reach from 50 cm to 1.5 m,
- many branches of pale green color,
- leaves are thin, like thick threads,
- the center of the inflorescence is represented by many yellow tubular flowers (by analogy with most complex plants),
- oval petal, stretched along from the center of the flower,
- flowers can be pink, white, red, burgundy or chocolate,
- the top of the stem can be decorated with one flower or a whole placer.
The flowers are distinguished by a delicate aroma, therefore they attract winged pollinators without problems. In vivo cosmea grows extensively in South and Central America. She appeared in Western Europe thanks to the Spanish sailors. Now this plant is used there to decorate decorative flower beds and private gardens. It can also be found along roads and in the fields, where it grows as a beautiful weed.
Features of seeds: removal and selection for sowing
Seeds suitable for planting can be harvested even in cold climates. The plant is unpretentious, so the planting material will sprout in any case. Cosmea seeds in assortment are presented in all flower shops. However, most gardeners prefer to use their planting material. They remove it from adult plants in their area. This procedure has the following nuances:
- Flowering lasts a long time, so it is not necessary to wait for its completion to collect seeds.
- Planting material is collected in early autumn from those flowers that are already dried.
- Seeds have a long shelf life. They are able to ascend within 3-4 years after collection or purchase.
Cosmea is a wild-growing flower, therefore it is capable of propagating by self-sowing. In autumn, seeds spill out of inflorescences to germinate next spring. If there are no complaints about the variety and characteristics of the flower on the plot, you can let it multiply on its own.
Important! The plant tends to be cross-pollinated. If 2-3 different varieties of cosmea grow nearby, it will be impossible to achieve a fair color when propagating by self-sowing.
When to plant cosmea?
Cosmea sowing time depends on which method of cultivation was chosen. This can be a planting in open ground seedling method. Their nuances are presented in the table below.
Table 1. Timing for planting flowers.
|Method||Sowing time||When the plant blooms||Cultivation Regions|
|Mid March - First Decade of April||Early summer||In cold climates. In such regions, it is usually not possible to achieve cosmea flowering in open ground due to the short summer.|
|Mid July - early August||For regions in the middle zone of Russia. In territories where there are no severe frosts, and cold weather in March is already receding.|
In both cases, the first sprouts may appear within a week after sowing. If the street is still cool, in the open ground, the cosmea can germinate in 12-14 days. This garden culture loves warmth, but can get used to light frosts. Therefore, if suddenly in the spring the frost “hit”, you should not panic.
Important! For timely hatching of seeds, the air temperature at the planting site should be kept at 12-15 ° C.
Step 1. Select and prepare the seeds.
As planting material, you can choose seeds of different varieties and create a group bright flower garden. Seeds have an elongated shape and average size, in one gram of planting material they contain about 200 pieces. Preliminary stratification and soaking in potassium permanganate are not required. The material can be seeded immediately in dry form.
Important! Elongated seeds are usually placed vertically in the hole. However, for cosmei, this landing method is not recommended.
Step 2. Find a place
Cosmea feels good next to fruit trees. Fragrant flowers attract butterflies that help pollinate the entire garden. In addition, the future habitat of the plant can be selected according to the following recommendations:
- The presence of the sun and the absence of strong winds. Cosmea needs a well-lit place without drafts.
- Part of the hedge. This variety of garden crops can grow, so it is ideal for hedges. Cosmea can be planted as an independent "living fence" or as an addition to the gaps in the hedges from other plants.
- Neighborhood with other colors. Cosmea gets along well with other types of plants. However, to create an aesthetic flower garden, a tall cosmea needs to be planted behind the rest of the flowers.
- Indoor flower garden. Low-growing varieties can be planted in a pot and put on the balcony. If the loggia is closed, cosmea will delight with its inflorescences before the onset of severe frosts.
- Border support. Cosmey of undersized varieties can be planted next to the borders to further decorate and arrange them.
In some cases, cosmea is used as an insect bait. So, she is planted in the garden to attract lacewing. And those, in turn, contribute to the destruction of mealy worms, thrips and aphids.
Step 3. Prepare the soil for planting.
For cosmei, any universal soil is suitable. But before landing, you need to prepare it:
- drain soil that is too thick with sand or wood chips,
- well loosen the soil to provide seeds with access to oxygen and water,
- feed with organic fertilizer and slightly moisten.
It must be borne in mind that it is impossible to over-feed the plant. Otherwise, he will start the active development of stems and leaves, and there will simply be no strength left for the formation and ripening of flowers.
Important! If the soil is not fertile enough, it can be fertilized with complex mineral compounds. A mixture of liquid cow manure and superphosphate is a good fit. The procedure is carried out once a season.
The algorithm for sowing cosmea seeds in open ground
When the soil is ready, it is time for sowing seeds. A nesting or solid landing method can be used. The sowing algorithm in both ways will be as follows:
- Level the bed. If the nesting method is chosen, shallow holes are made at a distance of 30 cm from each other.
- 3-4 seeds are placed in each well. Top planting is covered with a thin layer of earth. The pits should be no more than 1 cm deep so that the seeds germinate optimally.
- With the continuous sowing method, the seeds scatter in the selected area without creating holes.
- After sowing in any way, the garden is watered. This should be done carefully so as not to erode the seeds. It is best to spray the soil well with a spray bottle.
When the first shoots with leaves appear, they will need to be thinned out. Leave only strong strong shoots, removing weak shoots. Weed sprouting should also be monitored: they must be regularly harvested.
Principles of growing seedlings from seeds
This method is chosen by gardeners who want to receive flowers as quickly as possible. In this case, the first inflorescences appear already in early summer. Also, the seedling method is relevant if you want to create a flower garden on the site with a strictly defined arrangement of plants. When planting seedlings it is much easier to achieve the desired geometry.
So, the action algorithm for the seedling method will be like this:
- Find a low wide drawer or individual cups for sowing cosmea.
- Fill containers with breathable soil. You can buy universal soil in the store. The earth needs to be thoroughly loosened and moistened from the sprayer.
- Seeds are evenly distributed over the surface of the soil. If planting occurs in separate cups, 2 seeds are placed in each. They need to be slightly pressed with a finger into the soil.
- Sprinkle the seeds with soil is not recommended, as for pecking they need a lot of light. It is enough to spray them with water and cover with glass or film.
- The resulting mini-greenhouse with future cosmeas is put in a bright warm place with an air temperature of +18 ... +20 ° C.
- The film must be slightly opened regularly to ventilate the plantings and eliminate condensation. As the soil dries, the soil is moistened. Watering should occur no more than 1 time per week, so that plantings do not begin to rot.
- The first shoots should appear in about 1-1.5 weeks. After that, the film is completely removed, and the temperature is reduced by 2 degrees.
- Young growth needs to be thinned, removing weak sprouts. You need to leave a distance between the flowers of about 10 cm.
Strong young growth can be hardened. The procedure is carried out approximately 2 weeks before transfer to the open ground. For hardening, boxes with seedlings are taken out to the balcony or to the street. On the first day, plants spend 10-15 minutes in the fresh air, gradually this time increases.
Important! If you plan to create flower bushes with a plentiful crown, you need to pinch off the grown shoots after hatching the 7th leaf. But in this case, flowering will come much later.
Transfer of seedlings to the garden
The optimal time for transferring seedlings to the ground is mid-May. At this time, constant warm weather is already set on the street, and severe frosts are already excluded. Young shoots for transplantation should stretch by about 6-10 cm. The transplantation algorithm along with the nuances is presented in the table below.
Table 2. Algorithm for transferring cosmea seedlings to open soil.
|You need to choose a sunny spot on the leeward side. A few days before the planned planting, shallow holes for young growth are dug there. Low-growing varieties should be located 30 cm from each other, tall - 40 cm.|
| ||Wells need to be shed well with settled water. For transfer it is recommended to choose evening time for two reasons: |
Plant tying (similar to tomatoes)
|Tall plant varieties are best tied up so that unexpected gusts of wind do not break the thin stem.|
Pinching the apex (similar to other plants)
|When the plant stretches to about 50 cm, you need to pinch the tops of the shoots. So it will be possible to stop the excessive growth of stems and begin to form bushes.|
It should be remembered that cosmei are pollinated crosswise. Therefore, it is better not to plant different varieties of plants nearby.
Important! No need to delay the seedlings at home: so she will get used to the greenhouse conditions and may not survive the transfer to the street.
How to care for kosmey in the open ground
Young cosmea requires closer attention than an adult plant.
- Watering. Plants do not require frequent watering. It is enough to supply them with water once a week, but plentifully. 3-4 buckets of water are poured under each plant. The best time for watering is evening, when there is no strong heat.
- Loosening. After the earth dries out a little from watering, it needs to be loosened. This procedure will help the roots develop well.
- Weeding. Young kosmey need to weed regularly. Weeds take food and liquid from watering from a flower, therefore, they interfere with normal development. Adult plants are able to independently control weeds.
- Fertilizer. Cosmey feed three times a season. The first procedure is carried out before the formation of buds, the second - in the process of ripening, the third - before flowering. The drug is optimal "Bud": they need to spray the plant.
- Pruning. It is necessary to regularly remove diseased branches, dried shoots and wilted inflorescences. Tall plants are periodically pruned to form a beautiful crown.
- Pest control. Cosmeas are rarely threatened by pests, but sometimes they can be attacked aphid and slugs. In the fight against the former, they are sprayed with a special solution from a flower shop, and the latter will have to be collected manually.
Cosmea may be infected Fusarium. This is a disease in which leaves turn yellow and fall off. They treat the plant with fungicides.
What to do with cosmea after flowering?
After the plant has completely faded, you need to carry out two procedures. It:
- Seed removal. To prevent seeds from scattering, wilted buds need to be wrapped with gauze bags. After darkening the seeds of the inflorescence can be removed.
- Preparing for the winter. In the fall, a perennial cosmea is cut off. A stalk no more than 15-20 cm high should remain above the surface of the earth. In order to prevent frost from damaging the root system of plants, they are covered with coniferous branches or a dense layer of dried grass.
Cosmea - A unique plant that provides many ideas for landscape design. Using these flowers, you can arrange a bright hedge, create a decorative flower garden in a flower bed or hide an ugly wooden fence behind tall plants. And cosmey is actively used for landscaping city parks and flower beds.
Use in garden design
Cosmos is appreciated in landscaping as a culture, which makes it possible to relatively quickly create an inexpensive flower in execution and a simple flower to maintain. It is advantageous to place this plant where it is necessary to create compositions blooming all summer long in large spaces. Most often planted in large groups, massifs imitating a plot of natural meadow. Partner plants - verbena, Turkish carnation, monard, lilies, phlox, nyvyanik, marigolds (high varieties), bluehead.