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Shorthair (Anas clypeata)

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Not forest, with high nesting specialization, species.

Field of application. The shirokonosok figure is characterized by a relatively short neck, a small head and a large beak, which is especially clearly visible in flight. The color of the drake is mottled: a dark head with a metallic tint, white stripes on the sides of the back, a bluish-gray top of the wings, a dark belly and white chest. Brown female with light top of wings. He sits deep in the water and holds his head on an inverted neck. It flies slowly, making a noise (especially when taking off) with wings, similar to the noise of a mallard flight.

Vote. Pretty silent duck. The male has a quiet smacking “piss”, for which the shirokonosk is called the soksuna in some places. Females have loud quacking.

P ro ditions and sizes. An average duck, the beak is longer than the head, at the top it is twice as wide as near the base. The nail is narrow, the horn plates are very long. Primary fly feathers are narrow and pointed at the end. Inner minor feathers and humeral elongated and with sharp peaks only in summer attire, the latter wider and most with a rounded end. Rule 14, they are with pointed peaks, the shape of the tail is rounded. The wing length of males is 225–260, females 205–230 mm, foregrip of males 32–38, females 30–35 mm, beak of males 62–70, females 59–65 mm. The weight of adult males, depending on the time of year and area of ​​habitat, is from 500 to 1100 g. Adult females - from 500 to 800 g.

Comparator. It differs from all ducks by a large beak expanding at the end. In flight, a dark spot on the abdomen is characteristic.

Con nected with. The paw prints of the wide-toed socks are almost the same as those of the sviyazi, but still somewhat smaller and more elegant. The back finger on the prints is almost always noticeable. The print size (4.7-5.5) x 5.5 cm, the width is approximately equal to the length.

As a result of the marriage. It has a black head and neck with a purple-blue tint on the sides. The interscapular region is gray-brown, the anterior humeral is white or white with brown marks, the rest are black-brown with white centers, the longest of which are bluish in the outer weft and black in the inner with a white stripe along the shaft. The back, the under tail and the under tail are black with a blue-green tint. The goiter is white, the chest, belly and sides of the body are light brown, the hind feathers of the sides are buffy gray with dark specks. There are white spots on the sides of the mantle. The feathers of feathers are black-brown, secondary with a green shiny outer fan (form a mirror). Large hiding wings are brown with white tops creating a border in front of the mirror. Small coverts form a large bluish-blue field on the upper side of the wing. The middle pair of brown steering, the rest are almost white with irregular brownish spots. The beak is black, the paws are orange-red, the rainbow is from yellow to reddish-orange.

Adopted. It resembles a female, but differs in the coloring of the wing, its back and nadhigh black without speckles, as well as the plumage of the sides of the nostril, which are not white, but have a tan color with small transverse ripples.

In r s a l c i a m a a. The head and dorsal side of the body are brownish-brown, on the head are narrow longitudinal reddish strokes, on the back are the same color of the border of feathers, and on the suprahang there are also brown transverse streaks. The bottom of the body is buffy-saline in small brown streaks, brown rounded spots on the sides of the mantle and lower back. The wings are the same as that of an adult male, but the blue spot formed by the upper coverts has a dirtier color, and the green mirror is very pale. Internal minor flywheels and shoulders of the same color with the back. The tail is like that of a male, but more speckled. The beak is brown-olive, at the edges it is lighter, yellowish, always with a small number of small dark specks, the legs are orange, the rainbow is yellow-walnut.

Young people. In the first outfit, they are like an adult female after summer molting. The upper covering feathers of the wing are more dull, and the white strip formed by the tops of the large covering feathers is narrower. These characters distinguish young birds before their first full molt. Young males in the spring often keep separate feathers of a youthful outfit on the goiter and chest. The floors in the first outfit are distinguishable by the color of the upper covering feathers of the wing, which are significantly bluer in males, as well as by the pattern of plumage on the sides of the mantle (in males it is the same as in adult males in summer).

P at x about in about n and r I d. It is similar to that of a mallard (the beak is expanded very little, but the edges of the beak are soft). The upper side of the head and torso is usually darker. Yellow spots on the upper side are lighter, cheeks and streak through the eye are somewhat more brownish.

Spread. From the western state border to the east to the Kolyma basin, Olyutor and Karaginsky bays, Kamchatka, the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, Primorye. To the north to the middle part of Karelia, the mouth of Pechora, in Western Siberia to the 68th parallel, to Taimyr to the 73rd parallel, east to the north to the 69th parallel, but in some places, it is probably distributed to the north. To the south in the Volga-Ural interfluve up to the 49th parallel, then to the state border of Russia. Islands: Sakhalin.

Outside the countries of the former USSR: Western Europe, except for the southwest, Mongolia, China, the west of North America.

The basic m a ts and m o v. Japanese islands, Southeast Asia, Hindustan, northeast Africa, the Mediterranean.

Characteristics. Breeding migratory bird.

B and about t about p. Ponds in open landscapes - inhabits wide and open floodplains. Avoid taiga rivers and lakes, in which the forest approaches the shores. For feeding, ponds with vegetation are chosen, but not entirely overgrown with it, rich in animal feed.

SECTION Nest arranges in areas with very sparse vegetation, in clearings, steam fields and hay meadows. Usually it is covered by a jacket of higher grass, sedge, weeds or bush. The nest itself is a deep hole in a dry place, lined with dry stems of grass and fluff, which appears at the end of egg laying and the beginning of incubation. The size of the nest: the diameter of the nest is 20-27 cm, the diameter of the tray is 15-20 cm, the depth of the tray is 9-11 cm. In the masonry from 7 to 13, usually 10-12 eggs. Eggs are very light with a slight yellowish or yellowish-olive hue. Egg sizes: 48-58 x 34-39 mm. Hatching produced by one female continues for 22-23 days (sometimes up to 27).

L and N to and. Sharpeners shed twice a year: almost completely in summer, and partially in autumn and winter. The first signs of a change in the plumage in the drakes appear early - in mid-June. The summer outfit, which on the back is not always full, is not worn very long, since already in August a new change of plumage to a wedding outfit begins. On the autumn flight in October, many drakes already have mainly a wedding dress. This molt ends in December. Shedding of adult females, for some reason without a brood, begins early. They molt in flocks with males. Females during broods begin to molt late - in July or even in August, but the interim period between the beginning of molting and the change of fly-feathers is much shorter.

Nutrition. Shirokonoska feeds on animal feed. She gets food from the surface of the water, filtering it through a well-developed filtering apparatus of the beak and pecking the food from plants or the bottom at a depth where this can be done without diving. The main food item is small mollusks and planktonic crustaceans.

Appearance

Distinctive features in the field: recognizable by a long, very wide at the end of the beak, as well as a dense build and a rather short neck.

The male has a spring head and upper neck that are black, on the sides with a metallic tint, green or bluish in color, also black with a bluish tint of the scapula, back and nadhvost, white spots on the sides of the nadvizh. The base of the neck, goiter and sides are white. Chest and abdomen are brown. Black undertail with a bluish tint.

Primary flyworms are brownish, external, brilliantly green, the webs of minor flyworms form a green mirror, the upper covering wings - small, bluish-blue, the longest, bordering mirror - with white peaks. Elongated humeral feathers with black, blue and white longitudinal stripes, axillary feathers are white with brownish spots. The middle steering is brown, the rest are almost white. Eyes are yellow, beak is black, paws are red-orange.

A female with a brown head and narrow longitudinal stripes on it. Feathers of the brown upper side of the body with reddish rims. The female's throat is lighter, reddish, the rest is reddish-buffy with brown variegated. In wing coverts, the color blue is paler. Shoulder and shoulder blades of the same color with the back. Eyes are hazel, olive beak, dirty yellow paws.

The male in the summer outfit looks like a female, but the mirror is brighter, the bluer covering wings, the black back and muzzle without speckles.

Young birds in color are similar to a duck, but a very dim mirror and covering wings. Male dimensions: wing 225 - 260 mm (female 205 - 230 mm), metatarsus 32 - 38 mm (female 30 - 35 mm), beak up to 70 mm (female up to 65 mm). Weight 0.5 - 0.7 kg.

Habitat

Shirokonoska occupies most of the territory of the USSR from its western borders to Kamchatka. To the north further south of the tundra does not penetrate. Thus, it nests on the Kola Peninsula, but is absent on Murman, reaches the mouth of the Northern Dvina, is rare on the lower Pechora, comes under Salekhard, meets at the mouth of the Taz and further east not north of 68 ° N. On the Commander Islands only flies. To the south it nests throughout the country, but in some places it is rare.

Also lives in Western Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, Mongolia, northeast China, western North America.

Winters on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan.

Propagation

Shirokonoski create pairs even in the winter. One female is often looked after by up to 12 males. They swim in the water after her or pursue a female in the air.

At the peak of courtship, birds circle low together above the water. After that, the duck sits on the water next to one of the drakes. Thus, she highlights her chosen one. Next, the couple flies around the site and looks for a place convenient for building a nest. Wide-toed ducks build a nest most often on land, near water. Usually it is well hidden in grass or reeds.

In soft ground, the duck makes an oval groove, which is covered with grass, fallen leaves and soft fluff, which tears from its chest. Down, like other ducks, is laid out on the edges of the nest with a roller. The female alone is engaged in arranging the nest, incubating eggs and takes care of the chicks herself. The male’s function is to protect the female and the chicks. Within two weeks, the female broad-toed duck lays 9-11 eggs. But she begins to incubate only after she lays the last egg.

Therefore, usually, all ducklings hatch at the same time. Wide-nosed chicks leave the nest very early - their mother transfers them to the reservoir. Duck teaches ducklings to get food. Thanks to her, they acquire their first skills: they learn to look for food and hide from danger.

It feeds on shirokonosk mainly animal feed. The basis of this duck’s nutrition is small aquatic animals: mollusks, planktonic crustaceans, various aquatic insects and their larvae. Alone or in a small pack, she combes the shallow water. The bird swims in a circle and leads with its open beak from side to side.

If she manages to capture the prey, the shirokonoska closes its beak and pushes out water with its tongue. Small grooves on the inner surface of the beak come on top of each other and act like a sieve, catching all the animals that fell into the beak. The grooves are so small that ducks filter out even the smallest plankton. Sometimes, in search of food, a bird immerses its head and neck in water or dives so deep that only the tip of its tail is visible on the surface.

Duckweed ducks are omnivorous birds. Of plant foods, preference is given to the green parts and seeds of various aquatic plants. In most areas, broad-toed socks feed during the day, and where they hunt, at night.

LIFESTYLE

Shirokonoski live in freshwater bodies of water, keep mainly in shallow waters. On the shore, they seek out places densely covered with reeds and grass. On lakes with dense vegetation, they sometimes merge into large flocks.

Wide-legged socks seek food along shores and avoid deep places. These ducks most often live in lowlands. Often stay at low rates if they find enough food there.

The wide-toed duck easily rises to great heights. She flies, often flapping her strong wings. This reminds other representatives of the duck family. During spring and autumn flights, birds usually come together in large flocks. At other times, wide-toed socks are kept in pairs or packs of up to 20 individuals. During a long journey from the northern nesting to the south, ducks shirokonoski regularly stop to rest.

However, not all shoemakers are migratory. An exception are birds that nest in the mild climate of Southern Europe - they stay on the same territory year-round. In autumn, their relatives join them, who fly from the northern nesting places.

OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUCK-WIDER


The best time to watch wide-nosed is early spring or autumn. At this time, residents of the northern nests, who rest here during the flight, join the local ducks. Shirokonoski give preference to the shores of open and overgrown with coastal aquatic vegetation of lakes and elders. From March to October they can be seen on many reservoirs of Central Europe. Shirokonoski live throughout the northern hemisphere, but nowhere do they form numerous populations. They usually settle in lowlands and in shallow water. In size, the shirokonoska is slightly smaller than the mallard. Near it you can recognize the large wide beak. The male in the mating outfit is especially distinguished - the head and top of the neck are black with a metallic green tint, the lower part of the neck, goiter and front part of the chest are white, the upper feathers of the wings are bluish-blue, the wing mirrors are bright green, the back of the chest and belly are brown .

INTERESTING FACTS, INFORMATION.

  • Like other representatives of the family of ducks, the mating outfit of the drake is very bright. The color of the female is much more modest.
  • As a rather numerous and gullible bird, shirokonoska became an object of sports and industrial hunting.
  • In search of food, the bird swims in circles. Thus, it creates a whirlpool that lifts small animals from the bottom. Duckweed duck extracts food by filtering its water with its beak.
  • Shirokonoska flies slower than other ducks.

CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF WIDESTER

Flight: shirokonoska rises vertically upward and flies, often flapping strong wings.

Plumage: male mating contrasting. The head and top of the neck with a metallic green tint. The goiter and the front of the chest are white. The belly and back of the chest are brown.

Eggs: 9-11 eggs that the female incubates for 25-27 days.

Beak: big and wide.


- Habitat shirokonoski
- Wintering ducks

WHERE LIVES

In the temperate zone of Europe and Asia, as well as in the western parts of North America. Winters in the British Isles, in the southern parts of Europe and Asia, in the northern half of Africa and in the south-west of North America.

PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION

The number of shirokonosok decreases due to environmental pollution. In Europe, this species is still often found in the northern regions.

Shirokonoska. Birds of Brateevograd. Video (00:00:54)

This bird is found in Moscow on the span. There are rare cases of nesting in the city. Broods were seen in 2005 in the Brateevsky floodplain near the technological irrigation pond. From the side of Maryino they were seen during seasonal flights along the channel of the Moscow River. In spring, feeding fishermen were seen by fishermen at the very bend of the Moscow River in the direction of Conversations.

Migrations

Migrant.In Europe they winter on the British and Azores, in the Mediterranean, on the Black Sea coast in Bulgaria and Romania. In Africa reach the Canary Islands, Senegal and Northern Nigeria in the west and Uganda and the Red Sea coast in the east. South of the borders of Russia move to the South Caucasus, Iraq, Iran, Central Asia, India and the northern regions of Indochina. In the east they winter on Fr. Honshu and the southern Japanese islands, Taiwan and the Philippines. Accidental flies to Australia are known. In America, they migrate to the southern and southeastern states of the United States, Mexico, the western regions of Central America and the Antilles.

Habitat

Favorite biotopes are open reservoirs of the steppe and forest-steppe zones, where shirokonoski are the most numerous. In a strip of forests, it lives in the shallow water of open lakes and in wide floodplains of rivers. In the tundra is found only in northeastern Europe. Preference is given to reservoirs with vegetation, but with open water spaces. Avoids forest rivers and lakes with dense forest. During the period of winter migration, it rests on estuaries, sea coasts in the tidal zone and swamps with fresh or salt water.

Breeding

Puberty occurs at the age of one year, although most birds begin to breed only after 2 years. The breeding season, as a rule, falls on April - June. Pairs form even before it begins - ducks arrive in pairs at nesting sites. However, during the mating season, single males sometimes pursue other people's females. At this time, you can observe birds swimming one after another in a circle with a beak immersed in water. Sometimes the male and the female quietly grunt, shaking their outstretched head up and down. The nest is a depression in the ground lined with last year's vegetation and light gray fluff, usually not far from the reservoir - on a small treeless island, a hay meadow, on a high sedge hummock, in a reed. Birds often nest close to other public birds - terns, waders or blue-headed gulls. Their alarm helps wide-nosed guards better protect themselves from approaching predators. The diameter of the nest is 200-270 mm, the diameter of the tray is 150-200 mm, the depth of the tray is 90-100 mm. Full laying consists of 7-13 (usually 10-12) light eggs with a yellowish or yellowish-olive hue. Hatching begins with the last egg and lasts for 23-25 ​​days. The female incubates alone, at the beginning of the period she periodically leaves the nest, covering the eggs with fluff, and near the end she sits very tightly. After the start of incubation, the spleen quickly loses interest in the offspring and stray into same-sex flocks in which it is waiting for molting. Chicks, like other ducks, are of brood type - soon after hatching, they leave the nest and follow the female. The ability to fly appears at the age of 40-45 days, after which the chicks disperse and begin an independent life. Autumn departure begins in September.

Nutrition

Of all the river ducks, the shirokonoska feeds most on animal food: mollusks, amphipods, and other small crustaceans, as well as aquatic insects. It often feeds on the seeds of aquatic plants. The feed is harvested offshore by passing liquid mud through the beak. When extracting food from the bottom, it usually does not put the body upright, but only for a short time immerses the body in water.

Lifestyle

Compared to other ducks, shirokonoska arrives later. For example, mallard is almost half a month behind. Appears on the middle Volga around April 20, in the south of Siberia - at the end of April.

On migration it does not form large flocks; it flies in pairs or together with other ducks. Males leave nesting females and put on a summer outfit in the process of molting, first a small feather, then a large one. By the time of departure, they appear feathers of a new winter-mating attire, which acquires its completeness at the places of wintering. The broods of this year, young males also molt in late autumn and winter, but much more slowly, therefore they come to us in the spring with traces of their first outfit. Having completed the care of the young, at the end of the summer, the female molts.

Departure begins around September 10 with a slow advance towards wintering sites. Birds stay for a long time in the conditions of favorable autumn in convenient feeding places. The span in most of the territory of our country basically ends by the end of September.

At wintering, they feed on the mud of the coastal shallow lagoons, where they are able to put up with significant salinity of the water. But more often, birds prefer to stay on freshwater lakes along with other ducks. Sometimes he spends days in rice fields flooded with water.

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