Order, family: superficial or anostomic.
Comfortable water temperature: 24-26 ° C.
Ph: 6,2 – 7,5.
Aggressiveness: non-aggressive 20%.
Compatibility: any non-aggressive fish.
The recommended volume of the aquarium is 80l.
Anostomus vulgaris is common in the middle and upper reaches of the Amazon, in the waters of Guyana. In nature, they reach 18 cm. The background of the body is yellow, 3 brown stripes pass along the body. Fins are yellowish with brownish rays. The gender difference is poorly developed. Fish in the aquarium are kept at an angle of 45 degrees, head down. I emit characteristic clicking sounds when excited. Anostomuses feed on algae, but also need live food.
Unpretentious, mobile, schooling fish. Likes to hide in shelters. As shelters, you can plant aquarium with hard-leaved plants. In the aquarium, lighting should be moderate. Floating plants are desirable for creating dark areas. It is in a calm state and the fish swims under a slight slope, upside down. Only after being afraid of something, does the anostomus take a horizontal position and quickly hide in a shelter. You can keep a small flock and one at a time. When keeping 2-3 fish, there may be hassles due to territory.
Omnivores. They love to eat algal fouling, young shoots of plants. eat both frozen food and branded dry. Females are fuller and larger than males and less brightly colored. Complex breeding requires hormonal injections.
Feeding aquarium fish should be right: balanced, varied. This fundamental rule is the key to the successful maintenance of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses. Article "How and how much to feed aquarium fish" talks about this in detail, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and the feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing - feeding the fish should not be monotonous, both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet feed either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry feed. For example, every hour and everywhere you can find on the aquarium shelves the feed of the Tetra company - the leader of the Russian market, in fact the assortment of feed of this company is amazing. Tetra's “gastronomic arsenal” includes individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricaria, guppies, labyrinths, arovans, discus, etc. Tetra also developed specialized feeds, for example, to enhance color, fortified or to feed fry. Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company - here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its manufacture and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also store food in a closed state - this will help to avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
Anostomic, or small-breasted (Anostomidae)
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp The representatives of the anastomoid family inhabit the stagnant and slowly flowing waters of Central and South America, including the islands of the Caribbean Sea. All members of the family have the adipose fin, characteristic of the suborder haracin. A small mouth is usually surrounded by swollen or wrinkled lips. On the jaws there are teeth with which fish, like a rasp, strip off fouling from plants. They feed mainly on plant foods. The mouth of these fish is small, has bulging, thick, rough lips, which, together with small teeth, allow you to scrape off various fouling, and often damage plants. Some species have additional respiratory organs. Usually anastomids are kept in small groups in the bottom areas, among the dense thickets of vertically growing aquatic plants, perfectly masking among them. A characteristic and very interesting property of the most famous fish of this family is the position of the body upside down, taking a horizontal position only during the flight, which makes the presence of fish of this group in the aquarium highly desirable, especially in combination with upright pecilobricons. The color of many fish in this family of anastomids is also very attractive. Large fish are not suitable for keeping in aquariums.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp The abramites have a slightly higher body than the rest of the genera of the family, broad, brown, transverse stripes, dull yellow fins are visible on the brown or golden background of the body. Leporins have a more elongated, slender body. They do not use much success in aquariums, because they reach their final length too quickly and turn out to be too large for aquariums. Longitudinal, transverse stripes and spots create a characteristic color of different species. The transverse stripes always pass through the eye.
Genus Abramites - Abramites.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Abramites four-lane, Colombian - Abramites egues, eques Steindachner, 1878. Synonym: Leporinus eques. Colombia. 9 cm. Coloring olive-beige with 4 wide transverse stripes. Males are brighter and slimmer. Shelters and dense vegetation are needed. Strong filtering needed. They can jump out. Vegetable feed with the addition of small living.
Genus Leporinus - Leporinus.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbspIn nature, leperinuses stay close to the coast, near islands of vegetation, occasionally overlooking open places. Fish movements are slow. In a relaxed atmosphere, they look like hovering airships. But their low mobility is combined with high maneuverability, and catching them is not so simple. Fishes adapt easily to aquariums, but due to lack of space they become smaller. It is not difficult to contain leperinuses; they feel equally good in soft and hard water, with acidic and slightly alkaline reactions, at a temperature of 22-32 ° С. Their favorite food is young shoots of aquatic vegetation. Leporinus fish are strong, resistant to disease. But, having fallen ill, they react very poorly to dye treatment (even in half doses). Different types of leporins are sold in stores, but they grow very quickly and become too large for ordinary aquariums. Leporinuses look very impressive in large aquariums, in the vicinity of large fish of various shapes. They live 10-15 years.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Leporinus arcus, two-lane - Leporinus arcus Eigenmann, 1912. Guyana, Venezuela, the upper reaches of the Amazon. up to 30 cm The pale yellow body of this streamlined fish is crossed by a series of longitudinal strips passing at an equal distance from each other. They run along the entire body, from the front end to the caudal stem. The middle strip passing through the eye, usually darker than located above it. The mouth is small, red. With yellow and reddish fins. Keep inclined. Brawlers get along only with large mobile neighbors, they show aggressiveness from a young age. Destroy the plants. pH 6.5-8 °, dH up to 20 °, T 20-30 ° C.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Leporinus striped, zebra - Leporinus fasciatus Block, 1795. Synonym: Chalceus fasciatus. 15 cm. Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, La Plata. up to 30 cm, in the aquarium - about 15 cm. Golden with 9-11 transverse stripes throughout the body. The female is fuller, with an orange throat. The tail is deeply branched and transparent. It is not at all aggressive, but it is not suitable for keeping in a beautifully planted aquarium. This fish, which feeds on almost all plant foods, quickly causes very serious damage to the aquarium's vegetation. Fish too large for indoor aquarium. Needs aquariums closed from above (jumping fish), with snags, stones, very hard plants. He likes strong water circulation, sandy soil, prefers middle and lower layers of water. 3 subspecies are known: Leporinus f. fasciatus - Has 10 transverse stripes. 25 cm, Leporinus f. affinis - Has 9 lanes. 20 cm, Leporinus f. holostictus - Has 7-8 lanes.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Leporinus Frederic - Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794). On a pale brownish body, several scales with dark edges are visible, and a general impression of a mottled pattern is created. There are three dark oval spots on the sides, and smaller spots may appear between them. Fuzzy vertical stripes pass through the body, another strip is visible between the eye and mouth.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Leporinus desmotes (Fowler, 1914) - Myocharax. 18 cm. Several dirty black stripes encircle the body, starting from its front end, and to the caudal stem. The main body color is yellowish white. A small amount of the primary color is visible in the center of the three middle bands.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Leporinus maculatus (Muller & Troschel, 1845) - Spotted leperinus. Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Guyana, 10–20 cm. A highly variable species. A 1.5-cm male has transverse and longitudinal stripes, which break up into spots after a month. Omnivores. dH up to 15 °, pH 6.2–7.6, Т 23–27 ° С.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Leporinus octofasciatus (Steindachner, 1915) - Eight-lane. In dark stripes there are small areas of the main yellow-white color. The fins are mostly colorless, on the anal, pectoral and dorsal fins there are black patches.
Genus Synaptolemus - Synaptolaemus.
& nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp & nbsp- Luxurious synaptolemus - Synaptolaemus cingulatus Myers & Fernandez & Yepez, 1950. The upper reaches of the Orinoco and Xingu rivers, 12 cm. Brown-black with 8-9 crimson ribbons across the body. The fins are bluish, the base of the dorsal, adipose, anal and ventral fins is dark. Swims upside down. dH 2-10 °, pH 5.8-6.8, T 23-28 ° C.
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FAMILY ANOSTOMIC OR NARROW (ANOSTOM>
The family consists of 2 subfamilies (Leporelin and Anostomin) with 12 genera and 90 deputies. It is represented by fish of various sizes, the habitat of which is the standing and slowly flowing oxen of the tropical and subtropical zones of South America. Certain species are found in Central America.
The mouth of these fish is small, has bulging, thick, rough lips, which, together with small teeth, allow you to scrape off various fouling. Some species have devices for storing air and are able to live in waters with a low concentration of dissolved oxygen. The vast majority of anostomids floats upside down, taking a horizontal position only during the flight.
Both in natural conditions and in the aquarium, all species prefer bottom areas. The basis of nutrition in nature is composed of all kinds of worms, which fish are extracted from the soil, as well as fouling of plant origin (and organic) and young shoots of higher plants. Maintenance requires large and, more importantly, high aquariums, decorated with snags, stones and large, tall plants (vallisneria, sagittaria, some echinodorus). Adult individuals are usually territorial and in a limited volume of water are aggressive towards each other.
They become sexually mature in 2-3 years. Seasonal spawning, schooling. It stimulates fresh, soft and acidic (pH 6–6.5) water, an increase in temperature, active flow and diffuse lighting. But even in relatively hard (10–15 °) water, the results are encouraging. Caviar semi-pelagic, scattered among plants. Its amount is 500-500 thousand units. Producers are planted after spawning. Males are slightly smaller and slimmer than females. Juveniles hatch after 40–50 h, and even after 2–3 days they begin to feed on microplankton. They live in captivity for 6–20 years.