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Family: Viverridae Gray, 1821 = Viverridae

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The hyena family includes only 4 species. These are animals the size of a large dog and resemble dogs. 3 species of hyenas are specialized scavengers, and only the earthwolf eats termites and other insects. Representatives of the Wyverrov family, which includes about 70 species, are small animals that look reminiscent of mustelids, and sometimes cats. They have an elongated flexible body with a long fluffy tail. They lead a land-based lifestyle, but climb trees well.

Hyenas

Spotted hyena - the largest representative of the family, lives in the savannahs of Africa. The body length of this animal reaches 165 cm. Hyenas have very powerful jaws, capable of cracking even the bones of large animals. After the feast of a pack of hyenas, no trace remains of their prey. Hyenas live in numerous clans, each headed by an experienced female.

Hyenas cause dislike in many, but in nature they play an important role as orderlies. They not only eat carrion, but also deal with sick and weakened animals.

Hyenas often use the remains of prey of other predators, but they themselves are also skilled and fearless hunters. They prey on small ungulates (mainly antelopes), and sometimes attack livestock. Hyenas can chase prey for many kilometers, reaching speeds of up to 70 km / h. Having overtaken the victim, the hyena immediately pounces on food, so that late relatives will risk being left without dinner.

The smallest representative of hyenas is the earthen wolf, the length of its body does not exceed 80 cm. This is a very secretive and cautious animal, leads a nocturnal lifestyle. The teeth of the earthwolf are weak. Some naturalists believe that his main weapon is the anal glands, which secrete a foul-smelling secret, almost as smelly as skunks.

Viverra

Most civeros live in the tropical regions of Africa and Asia. The most studied among them are genets. These are slender dexterous animals the size of a cat, they have a long tail and semi-retractable claws on their paws. Light wool is covered with a complex pattern of spots and stripes. Genets are nocturnal predators, climb trees perfectly, and hunt on the ground near water bodies.

They feed on lizards, insects, small mammals, and fish. They have odorous musk glands, the secret of which is very much appreciated in perfumery, so the gene is even bred on special farms. The mongooses have gained great fame for their ability to crack down on poisonous snakes. Contrary to popular belief, they are not immune to snake venom and rely solely on their own agility in a duel with a snake. The mongooses immediately eat up the killed snake, in addition, they prey on rodents. To kill snakes, rats and mice, several species of mongoose were acclimatized on tropical islands, but became a real scourge for birds and small animals living there. Most mongooses lead a solitary lifestyle. Day and night, they rest in burrows, and they get food in the evening and morning hours.

Civets (or viverra) look like a cat, but their body length is 60-80 cm. They are covered with fluffy wool and have a bizarre color. African civet is a nocturnal animal that feeds on small mammals and birds. She is especially adept at tracking down bird nests. Civets emit an odorous substance - civet, which marks their territory. It used to be used as a medicine, but now it is added to incense.

General description

These are, as a rule, small slender animals with short legs and a long tail, living on trees. Many viverrovs resemble marten or feline in their appearance (with the latter they have a distant relationship, dating back to the early Oligocene). Body length varies from 30 to 98 cm, tail - 12–90 cm, weight from 1 to 15 kg. The body is elongated, muscular and flexible. The length of the tail in many species is equal to the length of the body. Binturong has a tail. The neck is of medium length, the head is small with an elongated, pointed muzzle. The ears are low and widely spaced. The eyes are pretty big. The limbs are five-fingered, finger-walking or stop-walking.

The hairline is low, rather rough. Brown color with colorful patterns consisting of stripes and spots predominates. The tail often has a ringed pattern. In some genera (Civettictis, Viverra, Viverricula) there are special glands located in the anal area and secrete the odorous secretion of civet. The number of teeth in viverra 32–40.

Lifestyle

They are found mainly in forests, bushes and tall grass. Active at night, during the day take refuge in hollows of trees, caves, less often in burrows, usually occupying strangers. Some live in human buildings. Meet singly or in pairs. They climb trees best of all predators; some species spend most of their lives on them. Representatives of the birth Osbornictis and Cynogale - semi-aquatic. By the type of food, most wyverns are omnivorous; their diet contains food of both animal and plant origin: various small vertebrates and invertebrates (worms, crustaceans, mollusks), fruits, nuts, and bulbs. Some species eat carrion. The sensory organs are well developed.

In most species, seasonality in reproduction is absent. Pregnancy lasts 60-81 days. In the litter from 1 to 6 blind, but covered with fur cubs. Some species have 2 litters per year. Life expectancy in Wyverns is 5-15 years.

In general, the biology and ecology of individual species are poorly studied.

Value for man

Many wyverns are an object of hunting and breeding in captivity. They are extracted for the sake of fluffy fur and edible meat, but mainly for the sake of civet, which is used in the perfume industry and medicine. One of the favorite civet feeds is coffee berries, from the seeds that have passed through the animal’s digestive tract, Indonesia produces one of the most expensive coffee varieties, Kopi Luwak.

In 2003, Chinese scientists found that the virus found in the blood of Himalayan civets coincides with the coronavirus that causes SARS. Experiments have shown that genetically these two forms of viruses are 99.8% similar. Thus, it is possible that SARS is transmitted to a person from civet, whose meat is considered a delicacy in Chinese cuisine.

Seven species of wyverns are listed in the International Red Book, of which:

Currently, the family of wyverns has 35 species, combined into 15 genera and 4 subfamilies:

African Palm Civet (Nandinia binotata) are currently isolated in a separate monotypic family Nandiniidae. The mongooses related to the wyverms of the subfamilies Herpestinae and Galidiinae were isolated in a separate mongoose family.

Notes

  1. www.apus.ru/site.xp/050050124053051048057124.html APUS.RU - Himalayan civet appeared in the spotlight
  2. Wozencraft, W. C. www.departments.bucknell.edu/biology/resources/msw3/ Mammal Species of the World / Wilson D. E. & Reeder D. M. (eds). - 3rd edition. - Johns Hopkins University Press, November 16, 2005 .-- ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC www.worldcat.org/oclc/62265494 62265494
  3. Sokolov V.E. The bilingual dictionary of animal names. Mammals Latin, Russian, English, German, French. / edited by Acad. V. E. Sokolova. - M.: Rus. lang., 1984. - S. 102-107. - 10,000 copies.
  4. A systematic list of vertebrates in zoological collections on 01/01/2011 // Andreeva T. F., Vershinina T. A., Goretskaya M. Ya., Karpov N. V., Kuzmina L. V., Ostapenko V. A., Sheveleva V.P. Informational collection of the Eurasian Regional Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Vol. 25. Mezhved. collection. scientific and scientific method. tr / Ed. V.V. Spitsina. - M.: Moscow Zoo, 2006 .-- S. 341. - 570 p. - ISBN 978-5-904012-09-0
  5. 123 A systematic list of vertebrates in zoological collections on 01/01/2011 // Andreeva T. F., Vershinina T. A., Goretskaya M. Ya., Karpov N. V., Kuzmina L. V., Ostapenko V. A., Sheveleva V.P. Informational collection of the Eurasian Regional Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Vol. 30. Mezhved. collection. scientific and scientific method. tr / Ed. V.V. Spitsina. - M.: Moscow Zoo, 2011 .-- S. 469-471. - 570 s. - ISBN 978-5-904012-09-0
  6. 12 Complete illustrated encyclopedia. "Mammals" Prince. 1 = The New Encyclopedia of Mammals / Ed. D. MacDonald. - M.: "Omega", 2007. - S. 131. - 3000 copies. - ISBN 978-5-465-01346-8.
  7. Sokolov V.E. Systematics of mammals. Volume 3 (cetaceans, carnivores, pinnipeds, aardvarks, proboscis, damans, sirens, artiodactyls, callopods, artiodactyls). - M .: Higher. School, 1979. - S. 198. - 528 p.

(Genetta genetta)

Widely distributed throughout Africa, it is also found in South-Western Europe (Spain, France), where it inhabits wooded and treeless mountains and lowlands, inhabiting mainly near water bodies.

Body length 42–58 cm, with a long (39–53 cm) fluffy tail, body weight 1–2 kg. The coat has a gray-brown color with black spots arranged in horizontal rows. The tail is relatively long, fluffy, with black transverse stripes. The muzzle is sharp, the legs are short, the ears are large. The nails are short and can retract. It produces a strong musk odor.

Ordinary genetics are excellent jumpers and climbers who can move without injuries even among prickly branches and bitches. These fearful animals are active at night and lead a solitary lifestyle, only occasionally they can be seen in the birth groups. During the day they sleep in their shelters, and go hunting at night. Their prey includes primarily rodents, birds, reptiles, fish, carrion and eggs. From time to time they also eat insects and berries.

They breed all year round, and cubs are born after 10-12 weeks of gestation in a nest lined with dry grass. In a brood, there are usually from 1 to 4 babies, which the mother feeds with milk up to 6 months of age. Until about a year they remain on the maternal site, but reach puberty by only two years.

(Genetta pardina)

Distributed in western Africa along the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, from Guinea to Nigeria and Cameroon. It inhabits primary tropical forests, preferring wet biotopes.

Body length 40–55 cm, weight about 2 kg.

Active at dusk and at night. Climbing trees perfectly (including upside down), like other genetics, spends a significant part of time on trees and vines. In danger, cat-like arches its back, raising the hair “on end”, scratches and bites, releasing a foul-smelling secret from the anal glands.

The nature of the hunting behavior is similar to ferrets: it is very mobile, tracks its prey, as if creeping along the ground, penetrates into any gap where the head passes. It feeds mainly on mouse-like rodents, and also eats birds, lizards, insects and fruits. Lifestyle and breeding biology are poorly understood.

(Genetta cristata)

The usual distribution area extends east from the Niger River to the Sanaga River in Cameroon; there is evidence of the presence of the species west of the Niger Delta. There is evidence of a presence more than 500 km south of the Sanaga River in the southern regions of Cameroon, in the territory of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. Inhabits densely forested areas of the Niger Delta (regularly flooded freshwater forest bogs, but not the mangrove zone).

Body length with tail about 50 cm. Weight - 1-2 kg.

Leads a night and land lifestyle. The day spends in crevices among stones, burrows (dug and abandoned by other animals), hollow trees, or on large branches. The resting place is permanent. It easily and agilely climbs trees, where it preys on birds, eggs and chicks. On the ground they hunt small insects, frogs and lizards.

Propagated throughout the year. In the litter - 1-4 cubs.

(Genetta maculata)

Distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, from the Volta River east to Eritrea and Somalia and south to Central Namibia and South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal province). It lives in forests, wetlands, among river vegetation, open and closed tree-covered areas, moist forests, savannahs, shrubbery areas and even grassy savannahs, but avoids arid savannah and very dry regions.

Differs from other genetes in longer legs and reddish spots.

(Genetta thierryi)

Distributed in West Africa from Guinea-Bissau and the Gambia east to Cameroon. It inhabits dry and wet savannahs with light forest. However, there are observations of animals in moist forests, light forests and dry wooded steppes.

The length of this genet is 38–45 cm, the height at the withers is 40–54 cm, and the mass is 1.3–1.5 kg. The color of the coat is from beige yellow to light brown, spots are reddish-orange. On the back there is a longitudinal dark stripe. The spots are relatively small, located relatively close to each other, located on the back like a line and partially connected at the base of the tail. The muzzle and front of the body are almost spotless. The hair on the back is not elongated, so there is no dorsal comb. The tail is twisted, dark areas closer to the end become wider. In general, 8–9 rings or half rings are recognizable. The tip of the tail is blackish.

(Prionodon pardicolor)

It lives in the dense forests of Nepal, Southern China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and Borneo.

The length of the body with the head is 35–45 cm, of the tail 30–42 cm.

Inhabits dense forests and bushes. Climbing trees well. It preys on squirrels and other rodents, small birds, lizards and insects.

Brings offspring twice a year, in February and August.

(Prionodon linsang)

It lives in the tropical rain forests of Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Thailand, Indonesia.

Leads a solitary lifestyle. It builds nests from brushwood and leaves, in one case the nest was found in a hole dug at the foot of a palm tree. Sometimes these animals take refuge in the hollows of trees.

Striped lenses are omnivorous, but most of their diets are small vertebrates (squirrels, rats, birds and lizards).

(Poiana richardsoni)

Inhabits the forests of West Africa. Distributed from Sierra Leone to North Congo.

Body length about 33 cm, tail length about 38 cm. Weight - from 500 to 700 g.

These are forest animals that are nocturnal. They build a round nest of grass and leaves, where several individuals sleep together for several days, after which they move to another place and build a new nest. Lensang nests are located at a height of two meters from the ground, sometimes higher. They feed on cola nuts, other parts of plants, insects and chicks.

There are 2 litters per year. 2-3 cubs are born.

Background information on animals of the species - mammals, family - civeros: habitat, sizes, appearance of animals

Distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of southern Africa and the Somali Peninsula.

Binturong is widespread in Southeast Asia; its range extends from India to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and the Philippine island of Palawan. Lives in dense tropical forests

The range covers Laos, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, southern China, northeast India, Myanmar, Nepal, Bhutan, Singapore

It lives in Malaysia, Indonesia on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, in Thailand and, possibly, in northern Vietnam. Lives in low-lying tropical forests, occasionally in secondary, bamboo forests, in clearings. The highest altitude at which the otter civet lives is 1000 meters above sea level in Borneo.

Lives in the jungle from North India to Southeast Asia and China. There are also populations on some islands - Borneo, Sumatra, Taiwan, Andaman, Nicobar Islands.

Endemic of Nigeria and Cameroon.

West African geneta is unevenly distributed in southern West Africa. The range extends from Senegal in the west to Cameroon in the east (the exact boundary of the range in the east is not known). The animal inhabits dry and wet savannahs with light forest. However, there are observations of animals in moist forests, light forests and dry wooded steppes.

Endemic to the island of Borneo. It occurs in the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah.

Distribution countries: Cambodia, southern China, Laos, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar.

Inhabits a small area of ​​southwestern India

Lesser tsiveta lives from the foot of the Himalayas throughout India, except for the areas adjacent to the Indus, and the western part of Rajasthan: in Ceylon, Assam, Southern China, the Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and, probably, on other South Asian islands. It is also found in Socotra, where it was probably imported, on the Comoros and Madagascar. She lives in holes or between rocks, in forests, sometimes near human dwellings, and sometimes even in them. Locals say that she easily climbs trees and often wanders around during the day.

Mussangs are found throughout South and Southeast Asia, their range covers India, Sri Lanka, southern China, including Hainan, as well as the entire mainland of Indochina and numerous islands such as Sumatra, Borneo, Java and the southern Philippines. On some small islands, they are probably an introduced species. They live in the rainforests.

The common geneta is widespread in Africa and, in some places, in Asia Minor. In addition, in ancient times it was introduced to Europe: the Iberian Peninsula, Southern France. It also settled in the lower reaches of the Nile, but became extinct there. Inhabits the forest and shrubbery, lives in the mountains. In the Pyrenees, the presence of an ordinary geneta was proved at an altitude of about 2000 m.

Southeast Asia: Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia (Malacca Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak), Myanmar, Thailand. The species was recorded in the primary low-lying moist forest, as well as in peat bog forests and acacia plantations. On Borneo, were discovered at an altitude of 1200 meters.

Spotted Linsang hails from the Central and Eastern Himalayas.

Endemic of the island of Sulawesi.

Lives in densely covered with trees or shrubs areas with high rainfall from the Western Cape to the south of KwaZulu-Natal, as well as to the border of neighboring Lesotho

Distributed in continental Southeast Asia - in northeast India (Assam), southern China, northern Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore and peninsular Malaysia, as well as in the central part of the islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Borneo

The range is located in Southeast Asia, penetrates into northern and central Laos, northern Vietnam, southern China.

They live in subtropical and tropical countries of Africa and Asia.

Leads a nocturnal, largely terrestrial lifestyle

The species is unevenly distributed in Ethiopia, northern Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and southeastern Sudan.

The area of ​​distribution of the species is limited to South India, where it lives in Western Ghat.

On our planet live different species and families of animals. If you want to know more about them, we suggest using our directory of wild animals of the world. In this section of the site we have collected a description and photographs of animals that belong to the species of mammals of the wyverrov family. Thanks to the guide, you will better get acquainted with the world of wild animals, from the pictures you will learn how different mammals of the wyverrov family look.

(Civettictis civetta)

Distributed in South, Central and West Africa, sub-Saharan Africa. Prefers to settle in forests and savannas with tall grass.

The body is 67–80 cm long and the tail is 46 cm. Body weight, as a rule, is approximately 12–15 kg.

Leads mostly nocturnal solitary lifestyle. However, he does not avoid individuals of his own kind, periodically maintaining relations with them with the help of visual, voice and smell signals. Under the tail of the African civet, there are special glands that secrete the odorous secret with which it marks its territory. African civet is almost exclusively terrestrial, but if necessary it can climb a tree. These animals love water and often swim.

All kinds of small mammals, birds, reptiles, eggs, insects, etc. serve as prey. In addition, she willingly eats fruits and other plant foods.

The breeding season is not expressed. These animals breed quite well. A female can bring up to three litters per year. Previously, it equips itself with a hole, although African civet, as a rule, do not use holes in normal times. The duration of pregnancy is about 70 days. Usually 2-3 cubs are born who are blind and helpless, like puppies or kittens. Eyes open only a few days after birth. But they are developing quite intensively, and by the first year of life they are already reaching puberty. The lifespan of these animals in captivity can be more than 20 years.

(Viverra zibetha)

Distributed from Indochina to China.

Body length - 89 cm, tail - 56 cm.

Most of the time they spend on the ground, although they climb trees well. In the afternoon they sleep in earthen burrows, which they get from other animals. Each animal has its own territorial possession, the boundaries of which are marked by the smell of the inguinal glands. It feeds mainly on vertebrates. It eats birds, frogs, snakes, small mammals, eggs, crabs and fish. Sometimes it eats fruits and roots. It breeds at any time of the year and usually brings 2 cubs per year. The cubs open their eyes on the 10th day and are fed with mother's milk for a month.

(Viverra tangalunga)

Distributed in Southeast Asia.

The size of an African civet. The largest - weighing 7-11 kg.

It lives in forests, shrubs, thickets of grass, often near villages, where there are especially many rodents that they vigorously hunt at night. Also prey are birds, snakes, frogs, crabs, insects, fruits, tubers.

(Viverricula indica)

Distributed from the foot of the Himalayas throughout India, except for the areas adjacent to the Indus, and the western part of Rajasthan: in Ceylon, in Assam, Southern China, on the Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra, Java and, probably, on other South Asian islands.

Body length 45–63 cm, tail length 30–43 cm, weight 2–4 kg.

It occurs both on grassy plains and in forests, although some researchers believe that they avoid wooded areas. It can dig burrows on its own, but on occasion it uses natural shelters in dense vegetation, buildings or other human structures. It is usually active at night, but it also occurs during the day in areas where it does not bother a person. He leads a terrestrial lifestyle, although he knows how to climb trees.

It feeds on a variety of animal and plant foods, including carrion. Often destroys large animals.

The female digs a hole or makes a den in the vegetation, where she brings a litter of 2-5 cubs.

(Osbornictis piscivora)

Distributed in Central Africa.

This is a very poorly studied species that leads a semi-aquatic existence and feeds on fish.

In length reaches 90-100 cm, of which a little less than half falls on the tail.

All meetings with water civets took place in a dense forest at an altitude of 500-1500 m above sea level. It is believed that these animals are semi-aquatic, as some of them were found in or near water. Fish makes up most of their diet.

Lead a solitary lifestyle.

(Cynogale bennettii)

It lives in the north of Vietnam, in Malaysia, in Sumatra and Borneo.

The length of the body with the head is 575–675 mm, the tail is 130–205 mm, and the weight is 3-5 kg.

It occurs near water sources or swamps. She climbs beautifully, and when dogs chase her, she immediately climbs a tree. During the movement, the civet keeps its head and tail lowered to the ground and arches its back. Despite the fact that this animal is partially adapted to the aquatic lifestyle, it has a short tail, which does not have special muscular strength, and the membranes around the fingers can be considered poorly developed.

Otter civets - swim slowly and cannot make fast turns in the water. They prey on aquatic animals, as well as those birds and animals that come to a watering place. Victims do not notice him, because during the hunt, otter civets are immersed in water, leaving only nostrils on the surface. The diet includes shellfish, fish, birds, small mammals, as well as fruits.

(Hemigalus derbyanus)

It occurs in the territory from southern Burma to the Malay Peninsula, as well as on the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Mentawai and others in the western part of the region. Civets from Malaysia live in tall forests and lead a land-based lifestyle. Animals from other areas climb trees well and lead a partially arboreal lifestyle.

The length of the body with the head is 410-510 mm, the length of the tail is 255-383 mm, and the weight is 1.75-3.0 kg.

It feeds on earthworms and various insects.

The female has 1-2 cubs. Newborns weigh about 125 g. They open their eyes for 8-12 days. The lactation period lasts about 70 days. Life expectancy 12 years.

(Diplogale hosei)

Distributed on the island of Kalimantan (Borneo). It occurs in the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah. It inhabits mostly mountain forests.

The length of the head and body is 47–54 cm, the length of the tail is 28–33 cm. The color is dark brown or black on top and grayish, yellowish-white, or slightly reddish below. The ears are covered with fine hair, white in the middle. Brownish-yellow-gray spots are above the eyes, on the cheeks. Lips and throat are white. The inside of the limbs is grayish, and the outside is black. The tail is dark, not striped.

Leads a terrestrial lifestyle. These animals are active at night and feed on deciduous bedding. Orthopterans and worms accounted for 80% of the contents of the stomachs (the rest were invertebrates) in 12 studied animals.

(Chrotogale owstoni)

Distributed in southern China, Laos and North Vietnam.

The length of the body, including the head, is 508–635 mm, and the tail is 381–482 mm.

Leads a terrestrial lifestyle near rivers in tropical and mixed forests.

In this species, incisors are arranged quite unusually for a predatory detachment - they are very wide, very close together, arranged in the form of a half moon, like some marsupials.

Eats earthworms.

(Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)

Distributed in Kashmir, India, Malaysia to Southeast China, on the islands of Hainan, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi and small islands east of India.

By its magnitude, it approaches a domestic cat: the length of the body is 45–55 cm, the tail is almost the same length, the height at the withers is 18 cm.

Mussangs are active at night. They climb and spend most of their time in trees. None often found near human housing, where they hunt mice and rats. They make a den for themselves in the roofs and empty chimneys. They feed on small vertebrates, insects, fruits, and plant seeds. They readily drink Toddy's palm juice, which is why the locals call them Toddy cats.

Cubs are born between October and December. There are 2–5 kittens in the litter. They reach puberty in 11-12 months. It is known that musang lived in captivity for 22 years and 5 months.

(Paradoxurus zeylonensis)

Distributed in Sri Lanka.

Leads a tree lifestyle. 2-3 cubs are born in October - November. The main diet consists of fruits (mangoes, melons, bananas, pineapples), but sometimes feeds on small mammals, amphibians and reptiles.

(Arctogalidia trivirgata)

Distributed in Southeast Asia - Bangladesh, Brunei, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, as well as on the islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo.

The length of the body with the head is 43–53 cm, the length of the tail is 51–66 cm. Weight - 2–2.5 kg.

Leads a nocturnal and arboreal lifestyle. In the afternoon, rests on the upper branches of tall trees. Often occupies nests of giant squirrels (at an altitude of 20 m above the ground). Climbing trees perfectly, easily jumping from branch to branch. A loner, sometimes a female is noticed with her cubs. By a secret left at the border of her plot, the female informs the neighboring males about her physiological state (about the readiness for mating, the beginning of the mating season).

The female gives birth to 2-3 blind and helpless cubs. Most of the time the cubs spend in the hollow of a tree, from where they impart impatient scream. Eyes open on day 11. Lactation lasts up to two months.

Omnivore - eats insects, small mammals (giant squirrels), birds, frogs and lizards, but mainly fruits and fruits.

(Paguma larvata)

It lives in forests and shrubs from Kashmir, Burma, China to the Malay archipelago.

In length (with a tail) the pagum reaches 1 m or more, its mass is up to 5 kg.

It inhabits forests and bushes. Leads a woody solitary lifestyle. Omnivorous. Offspring brings in spring and early summer.

(Macrogalidia musschenbroekii)

Distributed in the north-east of the island of Sulawesi.

Body length about 100 cm, tail length 60 cm.

It lives on plains and mountain forests at an altitude of up to 2,600 m above sea level. Although these civettas are confined to tropical forests, they are found on neighboring plains and even agricultural land. They can climb trees very well, but they prefer to feed on the ground. Small mammals and fruits are present in their diet, mainly the fruits of palm trees, as well as chickens and pigs. These animals lead a solitary lifestyle, although the female and her offspring remain together for some time after the cubs have matured and switched to adult food.

(Arctictis binturong)

Distributed in Southeast Asia. The habitat extends from India to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Palawan where it inhabits dense tropical forests.

The body length is from 61 to 96 cm, and the tail is about the same. Weight ranges from 9 to 14 kg, in some cases reaches up to 20 kg.

Active at night and live mainly on trees. Their movements are slow and careful, they do not jump, but they can climb well with the help of the grasping tail. They are also good swimmers and divers. Being on the ground, a binturong, like a bear, steps with its entire paw, which is very unusual compared to the rest of the wyverns. Binturongs live singly or in small groups of couples with offspring. Within such groups, the dominant role belongs to the female.

The main food of binturongs is fruit. The share of plant foods in them is much higher than in other civets. In addition, binturongs feed on insects and small birds, do not disdain carrion, and also rob bird nests. A part of their food is made up of fish.

The female gives birth to offspring up to two times a year; her pregnancy is about 90 days. At one time, from one to six (on average two or three) cubs are born. After giving birth, the female allows the male to remain with her, which is unusual among the civets. After six to eight weeks, the cubs wean from milk, and reach puberty at the age of 2.5 years. The largest known life span of binturong was 25 years.

(Nandinia binotata)

It lives in Africa from Guinea-Bissau to southern Sudan, northern Angola and the eastern regions of Zimbabwe.

The body length is 44–58 cm, but with a long (46–62 cm) and rather thick tail. Body weight ranges from 1.7 to 2.1 kg.

Common in wooded areas of Africa, forests rarely leave. They lead a semi-woody lifestyle, are active at night, during the day resting in the forks of branches at an altitude of 10-30 m above the ground or in the interweaving of vines. As a rule, they are solitary, with the exception of females with broods and clusters of 10-15 individuals in the feeding areas. Nandinia are territorial, and males and females do not allow adult mature animals to their sites. In females, the individual territory occupies up to 45 ha, in males - up to 100 ha and covers the territories of several females. Territorial fights can be violent and sometimes end in death.

Nandinia is predominantly fertile, a study of the contents of the stomachs showed that 80% of their diets are fruits, as well as small rodents, winged birds, birds and bird eggs, large beetles and caterpillars, carrion.

Studies have shown that palm civet has two fertility peaks - in May and in October. Breeding periods are timed to the onset of the wet season. Pregnancy lasts 64 days, childbirth occurs on a tree. There are 2–4 cubs in the litter. After the female ceases to feed them with milk, young males settle. Maturity occurs in the 3rd year of life. Life expectancy in captivity reaches 15 years and 10 months.

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